Στοιχεία Τόπου

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Γενικά Στοιχεία

Κατηγορία Τόπου Βιότοπος NATURA
Κωδικός Τόπου GR1430004
Κύριος Χαρακτήρας
Φυσικό Τοπίο
Δομημένο Τοπίο
Διοικητική Υποδιαίρεση Νομός Μαγνησίας
Συνολική Έκταση (ha) 249145.60
Χερσαία Έκταση (ha) 17026.89
Συνολική Περίμετρος (km) 193.2
Μέγιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 564.0
Ελάχιστο Υψόμετρο (m)
Ένταξη στο Υπάρχον Θεσμικό Πλαίσιο


Τύπος Τοπίου
Περιγραφή Τόπου Northern Sporades are a group of islands situated in the NW Aegean, on the north of Evvoia island and on the east of Pilion peninsula. The site includes the SE part of Skopelos and the island of Alonnisos, the only inhabited parts of the site and a number of smaller islands and islets, which are uninhabited, with the exception of the few guards and the occasional cattle-breeders. The largest part of the site is covered by marine habitats, not included in the Annex I habitat types. Geologically, all the islands are dominated by limestone with the exception of Psathoura, which has a clearly volcanic origin. Near Psathoura there are the remnants of an old volcano. The earthquakes of 1867-1868, 1965, and 1973 were destructive. As a result, the population of the old village (Chora) of Alonnisos moved to the harbour, creating the new village of Patitiri. The highest peak in SE Skopelos is Paliouri (546 m). Steep valleys and seasonal torrents are formed on the island. The vegetation consists mainly of Aleppo pine forets, Quercus coccifera maquis, a small forest of Quercus ilex, an Oleo-Ceratonion community, and orchards and olive trees.The highest peak in Alonnisos is Kouvouli (493 m). The vegetation consists mainly of dense maquis with Quercus coccifera, Q. ilex, Arbutus unedo, Juniperus phoenicea (a tall arborescent maquis, Aleppo pine forests, and phrygana (Sarcopoterium spinosum). The pine forests at Skopelos and Alonissos replaced the once dominant oak forests because the pines were supported due to their use in ship-building. The highest peak in Peristera, a mainly rocky island, reaches at 260 m. The vegetation at the central and southern part consists of olive trees, while in the north there is a dense maquis with Quercus coccifera, which suffered by intensive grazing in the past.The highest hills on the island of Kyra Panagia (300 m) are separated by a valley connecting the two main bays of the island, Planitis and Agios Petros, which are the safest ports in N. Sporades. The main vegetation consists of maquis with Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus coccifera, Atbutus unedo, Erica verticulata and olive trees and there are abandoned fields colonized by Vicia viscosa and Mentha pulegium. The highest peak in Gioura island, and in the whole site, reaches at 570 m. The vegetation mainly consists of phrygana (Sarcopoterium spinosum and Euphorbia acanthothamnos). In the middle of the island there is a Quercus coccifera forest. In the central and northern parts of the island, dolines dominated by Crataegus monogyna have been formed. In the cliffs of Gioura a large number of chasmophytic species can be found.The maximum altitude on Psathoura island does not exceed 17 m. The vegetation differs from the one of the other islands, with sparse phrygana (Sarcopoterium spinosum), Olea europea var. sylvestris and Pistacia lentiscus.The embryonic sand dunes and the semi-aquatic habitats host a relatively large number of flora specie (130), not observed on the other islands.The highest altitude in Skantzoura island is 107 m. The vegetation includes Juniperus phoenicea matorral, Sarcopoterium spinosum phrygana, and maquis. The islets around Skantzoura are covered by Euphorbia acanthothamnos phrygana.The highest altitude in Piperi island reached at 353 m. The island is covered mainlny by Pinus halepensis forest, maquis, and phrygana. Many chasmophytes grow on the sea cliffs of Piperi.
Κατάσταση Τόπου
Εγκατάλειψη οικισμών
Τάση Κατάστασης Τόπου
Ιστορία και εξέλιξη του τόπου
Σημεία με καλή Θέα
Μονοπάτια Περίπατοι


Οικολογική Αξία
Κοινωνικοοικονομική/πολιτιστική Αξία
Αισθητική Αξία
Σχόλιο για τις αξίες The part of the Northern Sporades included in the site, which covers the National Marine Park, represents a unique in the Mediterranean complex of terrestrial and marine habitats. It contains a variety of vegetation types -especially marine priority habitat types of excellent representativity-, and of flora and fauna species, among which many are endemic, rare, or protected, and some are at their southern- or northern-most limits of distribution. The island of Piperi is protected by the Barcelona Convention.Besides the scientific and educational interest of both the marine and the terrestrial area, the site also presents a great archaeological interest with relicts covering the prehestorical, the classical, and the byzantine ages (cave findings, shipwrecks, old monasteries, and churches).The ecological quality and importance of the site and especially its biological diversity potential are made evident by the following detailed description:Fauna:The numerous caves with beaches formed at the sea cliffs of the islands consitute ideal shelters for the Monk seal population, which is estimated to be the most important in the Mediterranean. Piperi, the most important breeding area for the Monk seal, is the core area of the National Marine Park of Sporades.An isolated population of Capra aegagrus ssp. dorcas (included in section 3.2.c. as C. aegagrus) lives exclusively on Gioura. Also, the herpetofauna of all the islands is very important, including rare and protected species.The avifauna is very rich, containing a large number of migratory and breeding birds. The sea-cliffs are most important as nesting places for the colonies of Eleonora's falcon and for the sea birds (Larus andouinii, Puffinus puffinus, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Calonectis diomedea, etc.). A variety of raptor species nest or feed in the area.The invertebrate fauna is also important, including a lot of endemic species of Isopoda, especially in the cave of Cyclops (Gioura). In particular, among the Thysanoptera species, Scirtothrips dignus, found in Skantzoura, has been recorded as a new species; Rhipidothrips unicolor was first reported in the Mediterranean region; and Scirtothrips magniferae was first reported in Greece. A thriving abundance of species characterize the biodiversity in the marine biotopes. The variety of marine habitats (such as the excellent Posidonia beds, reefs etc) and the lack of pollution have contributed in this high diversity of the marine species, a fact that gives the site systematic and zoogeographical value.Many fish species, amphipoda, and species of Porifera have been recorded in the site. Notably, among them Coscinoderma sporadense is a new species and for Spongia virgultosa and Ircinia pausifilamentosa these are their first reports in the Aegean.For the Annelida species, Brachiosyllis exilis, Amphitrite cirrata, Placostegus crystallinus, Policirus pallidus, Policirus tennuiselis, Procerastea perrieri, Streptosyllis websteri, and Syllis brevipennis their presence in the site is their first record in Greece and for the Decapoda Callianasa acanthura (1st report in Greece), Periclimenes scriptus, Anapagurus breviaculeatus, and Pilumnus villosissimus their first report in the Aegean sea.Palinurus vulgaris is considered a threatened invertebrate (European Invertebrate Survey, 1991). Homarus gammarus is a threatened commercial species.The Tunicata Microcosmus sulcatus and the Echinodermata Arbacia lixula and Sphaerechinus granularis are considered threatened invertebrates (European Invertebrate Survey, 1991). Paracentrotus lividus (Echinoderma) is considered a threatened species (IUCN, 1988).From the Mollusca species reported in the site, for Diodora italica it is its first report in Greece, for Leptochiton africans its first report in the western Mediterranean, and for Loripinus fragilis, Musculus discors, and Musculus niger their first report in the Aegean sea. Arca noae, Arca barbata, Venus verrucosa, Chlamys varia, Monodonta turbinata, Ostrea edulis, and Callista chionae are considered threatened invertebrates (European Invertebrate Survey, 1991).Two species, Aplysiopsis elegans (Coelenterata) and Doris marmorata (Bivalve), are endemic to the Mediterranean.The important Bivalvia species (Koomen P. and P.J. van Helsdingen) Pinna nobilis, is included in Annex IV of the Directive 92/43/EEC and it is protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81).Lithophaga lithophaga is an important species (Koomen P. and P.J. van Helsdingen), included in Annex IV of the Directive 92/43/EEC.Finally, there are important stocks of fish, lobsters, and mollusca species, with high commercial value.Flora:The rich chasmophytic vegetation, which includes a lot of endemic species, is of great phytogeographical and ecological interest.There are plant species occurring in the South Aegean, for which Gioura is their northernmost distribution limit. Such species are: Avenula cycladum, Erysimum senoneri ssp. senoneri, Evax contracta, Filago cretensis ssp. cretensis, Filago aegaea ssp. aristata, Ficus carica, and Malcolmia flexuosa ssp. naxensis.Sedum urvillei have their main distribution in the mainland also occur at Gioura.Silene fabaria is an species of Central Greece and of the Aegean, with one report from W. Anatolia, while Geocaryum macrocarpum is a species with limited distribution.Muscari dionysiacum, Galium reiseri, Satureja athoa, Aethionema polygaloides, and Trigonella rechingeri are protecte by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81).The hybrid Arbutus unedo X Arbutus adrachne, occurs in the Aegean only.The semi-aquatic habitats on Psathoura are important for the rare species: Pilularia minuta, Callitriche brutia, Ranunculus baudotii, Lythrum boristhenicum, Aphanes minutiflora. Pancratium maritimum, occurring on the sand beaches of Psathoura, has a decreasing trend and may become threatened because of the destruction of its habitats in the Mediterranean.NOTES: Cladocora cespitosa is included in 3.3. as Cladocera cespitosa (mispelled in the software list)OTHER IMPORTANT SPECIES WITH MOTIVATION DPilularia minuta is included in the IUCN Red Data List (1993) in the category of threatened plants characterized as vulnerable in Greece and it is protected by the Bern ConventionThe following species are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and are included in the IUCN Red Data List (1993) in the category of threatened plants: Trigonella rechingeri (rare), Anthemis werneri ssp. werneri (indeterminate), Campanula scopelia (rare), Muscari dionysicum (rare), Aethionema saxatile ssp. creticum (rare) Callitriche brutia is a European species, found in Psathoura and Agios Efstratios in Greece. Campanula chalcidica is balkan endemic found in Athos and Yioura in Greece. Evax contracta occurs in the S. Aegean in Greece and in Europe, otherwise in Asia. Filago aegaea ssp. aristata is a plant with distribution in S & E Aegean, Ionian Islands, Crete and Cyprus. Lythrum borysthenicum is a species of C & S Europe, very rare in the Balkan peninsula (Flora Europaea).Note: The IUCN characterizations given concern the plant’s status in Greece unless otherwise stated. Malcolmia flexuosa ssp. naxensis is endemic to the Aegean region and Anatolia. Silene fabaria is an Aegean region endemic (occurring only in W Anatolia out of Greece). Brassica cretica ssp. aegaea is a chasmophyte with distribution in Greece, SW Anatolia, Mt Carmel. Aurinia saxatilis ssp. megalocarpa (=Alyssum saxatile ssp. megalocarpum) is a plant with distribution in the Aegean Islands, Kythira, S. Italy and W. Turkey.


Σχόλιο για τις απειλές-διαταραχές
Τρωτότητα Generally, the islands are not intensely threatened by human activities. Most of the site is protected and human activities that used to be practiced in the past are now under control: illegal fishing, trawlers and purse seiners, spear-gun fishing, lumbering. The monk seal is not threatened any more by human persecution.The threats for the vegetation include uncontrolled grazing and fires (mostly during summer). Hunting, in the non-strictly protected areas still remain a threat for the avifauna. Unplanned and uncontrolled tourism development may result in disturbances of the monk seal habitats. An increase in building activities related to an increase of tourism activities could cause reduction or destruction of the natural habitats of Skopelos and of Alonnisos. The increase of population during summer results in pollution near the villages and ports. In the neighbouring sea-area there is a route of oil tankers. The risk of an accident and of the consequent oil spill is a continuous threat for the area. Earthquakes constitute a continuous danger for the locals and for the structure of the monk seal shelters as well. Smuggling of antiquities is a continuous threat for the cultural richness of the site. The military exercises at Psathoura cause great disturbance to the monk seals.
Προτεραιότητα προστασίας

Πανίδα και Χλωρίδα

Χαρακτηριστικά Ενδιαιτήματα
Αξιόλογα Φυτά
Amelanchier chelmea (Αμελάνχιερ του Χελμού)
Arenaria phitosiana
Atriplex recurva
Campanula chalcidica
Campanula reiseri
Carduus macrocephalus sporadum
Centaurea rechingeri
Cephalaria squamiflora squamiflora (Κεφαλάρια η λεπιδανθής)
Crocus sieberi atticus
Erysimum senoneri senoneri
Filago aegaea aristata
Filago cretensis cretensis
Galium reiseri
Linum leucanthum
Lythrum borysthenicum (Λύθρο του Βορυσθένη)
Malcolmia flexuosa naxensis
Pancratium maritimum
Scabiosa hymettia (Σκαμπιόζα του Υμηττού)
Silene fabaria domocina
Silene multicaulis genistifolia
Stachys tetragona
Trigonella rechingeri
Αξιόλογα Θηλαστικά
Capra aegagrus (Αγριοκάτσικο)
Delphinus delphis (Δελφίνι)
Martes foina (Κουνάβι)
Monachus monachus (Μεσογειακή φώκια)
Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Νανονυχτερίδα)
Rhinolophus euryale (Μεσορινόλοφος)
Tursiops truncatus (Ρινοδέλφινο)
Αξιόλογα Πτηνά
Accipiter gentilis butoides (Διπλοσάινο)
Accipiter nisus nisus (Τσιχλογέρακο)
Alcedo atthis (Αλκυόνα)
Anthus campestris campestris (Χαμοκελάδα)
Anthus pratensis pratensis (Λιβαδοκελάδα)
Anthus spinoletta littoralis (Νεροκελάδα …)
Anthus trivialis trivialis (Δενδροκελάδα)
Apus apus apus (Σταχτάρα)
Apus melba melba (Σκεπαρνάς)
Ardea purpurea (Πορφυροτσικνιάς)
Ardeola ralloides (Κρυπτοτσικνιάς)
Buteo buteo buteo (Γερακίνα)
Calandrella brachydactyla (Μικρογαλιάντρα)
Calidris minuta (Νανοσκαλήθρα)
Calonectris diomedea (Αρτέμης)
Caprimulgus europaeus (Γυδοβυζάχτρα)
Cercotrichas galactotes (Κουφαηδόνι)
Circaetus gallicus (Φιδαητός)
Circus aeruginosus (Καλαμόκιρκος)
Coracias garrulus (Χαλκοκουρούνα)
Coturnix coturnix (Ορτύκι)
Cuculus canorus (Κούκος)
Delichon urbica urbica (Σπιτοχελίδονο)
Egretta garzetta (Λευκοτσικνιάς)
Emberiza caesia (Σκουρόβλαχος)
Emberiza hortulana (Βλάχος)
Emberiza melanocephala (Αμπελουργός)
Erithacus rubecula balcanica (Κοκκινολαίμης των Βαλκανίων)
Falco eleonorae (Μαυροπετρίτης)
Falco naumanni (Κιρκινέζι)
Falco peregrinus brookei (Πετρίτης)
Falco vespertinus (Μαυροκιρκίνεζο)
Fringilla coelebs coelebs (Σπίνος)
Gyps fulvus (Όρνιο)
Hieraaetus fasciatus (Σπιζαητός)
Hippolais icterina (Κιτρινοστριτσίδα)
Hippolais olivetorum (Λιοστριτσίδα)
Hippolais pallida elaeica (Ωχροστριτσίδα)
Hirundo daurica rufula (Δεντροχελίδονο)
Hirundo rustica rustica (Χελιδόνι)
Hydrobates pelagicus (Υδροβάτης)
Lanius collurio collurio (Αητόμαχος)
Lanius minor (Γαϊδουροκεφαλάς)
Lanius senator senator (Κοκκινοκέφαλος)
Larus audouinii (Αιγαιόγλαρος)
Larus minutus (Νανόγλαρος)
Luscinia megarhynchos (Αηδόνι)
Merops apiaster (Μελισσοφάγος)
Motacilla alba alba (Λευκοσουσουράδα)
Motacilla cinerea (Σταχτοσουσουράδα)
Motacilla flava beema (Κιτρινοσουσουράδα)
Muscicapa striata neumanni (Σταχτομυγοχάφτης)
Neophron percnopterus (Ασπροπάρης)
Nycticorax nycticorax (Νυχτοκόρακας)
Oenanthe hispanica (Ασπροκώλα)
Oenanthe oenanthe oenanthe (Σταχτοπετρόκλης)
Oriolus oriolus oriolus (Συκοφάγος)
Otus scops (Γκιώνης)
Pandion haliaetus (Ψαραητός)
Pelecanus onocrotalus (Ροδοπελεκάνος)
Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Θαλασσοκόρακας)
Phoenicurus ochruros (Καρβουνιάρης)
Phoenicurus phoenicurus phoenicurus (Κοκκινονούρης)
Phylloscopus bonelli orientalis (Βουνοφυλλοσκόπος)
Phylloscopus collybita abietinus (Δενδροφυλλοσκόπος των ελάτων)
Phylloscopus trochilus acredula (Θαμνοφυλλοσκόπος)
Plegadis falcinellus
Podiceps cristatus (Σκουροβουτηχτάρι)
Prunella modularis (Θαμνοψάλτης)
Puffinus puffinus puffinus (Μύχος)
Regulus regulus (Χρυσοβασιλίσκος)
Saxicola rubetra (Καστανολαίμης)
Streptopelia turtur (Τριγώνι)
Sylvia atricapilla (Μαυροσκούφης)
Sylvia borin borin (Κηποτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia cantillans albistriata (Κοκκινοτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia communis communis (Θαμνοτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia hortensis crassirostris (Δεντροτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia nisoria nisoria (Ψαλτοτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia rueppelli (Μουστακοτσιροβάκος)
Tringa totanus totanus (Κοκκινοσκέλης)
Turdus philomelos (Τσίχλα)
Turdus torquatus alpestris (Απλική τσίχλα)
Upupa epops epops (Τσαλαπετεινός)
Αξιόλογα Αμφίβια / Ερπετά
Ablepharus kitaibelii fabichi (Αβλέφαρος)
Caretta caretta caretta (Χελώνα καρέττα)
Coluber caspius (Ζαμενής (Αστραπόφιδο))
Cyrtodactylus kotschyi adelphiensis (Κυρτοδάκτυλος των νησιών Αδέλφια)
Elaphe quatuorlineata quatuorlineata (Λαφίτης)
Elaphe situla (Σπιτόφιδο)
Hemidactylus turcicus turcicus (Σαμιαμίδι)
Lacerta trilineata cariensis (Τρανόσαυρα της Ικαρίας)
Malpolon monspessulanus insignitus (Σαπίτης)
Podarcis erhardii amorgensis (Σιλιβούτι της Αμοργού)
Testudo graeca ibera (Γραικοχελώνα)
Testudo marginata (Κρασπεδωτή χελώνα)
Vipera ammodytes meridionalis (Οχιά)
Αξιόλογα Ψάρια
Αξιόλογα Ασπόνδυλα
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