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||The quality and importance of the site under consideration is based on the ecological and aesthetic value of its natural elements. From an ecological point of view, a variety of vegetation types, which are of excellent structure, are maintained. This, in conjuction with its interesting geomorphology, make the area remarkably rich in flora and fauna. It has high alpine pastures, bare rocks and screes, and an impressive Abies cephalonica forest.The National Park of Parnassos was established in 1938 and is the second Greek National Park -the first being Mount Olympos. Its core coincides with a Special Protection Area (SPA), according to the Bird’s Directive.The whole area is particularly important for birds of prey, woodpeckers and alpine birds. More specifically, Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), Short-toed Eagles (Circaetus gallicus) and Lanner Falcons (Falco biarmicus) nest in significant numbers. Unfortunately, the Lammergeir, Griffon Vulture and Egyptian Vulture that once nested have become extinct. Other species of interest include the White-backed, Black and Middle Spotted Woodpecker, the Ruppel's Warbler, Tawny Pipit, Alpine Swift and Ortolan Bunting. Many birds of those reported from the site are listed on Annex I of Council Directive 79/409/EEC, whereas the rest species of birds are being protected by International Conventions. Two of the latter, namely Columba oenas and Coturnix coturnix, are included in the National Red Data List. Some mammals, amphibians, reptiles, invertebrates and 1 plant (Paeonia parnassica) are listed on Annex II of Council Directive 92/43/EEC. Apart from the two bird species referred to above, 2 species of mammals (Dryomis nitedula wingei and Spalax leucodon) are also included in the National Red Data List. The site hosts many species of invertebrates, many of them endemic, and endemic species of plants. OTHER IMPORTANT SPECIES WITH MOTIVATION D: Plants: The following species are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and are also included in the IUCN Red List of threatened species (1993): Alyssum doerfleri (rare), Genista parnassica (Rare), Astragalus lacteus (Rare), Seseli parnassicum (Rare), Athamanta densa (Rare), Beta nana (Rare), Silene barbeyana (Rare), Rindera graeca (Rare), Campanula rupicola (Rare), Omphalodes luciliae ssp. scopulorum (Vulnerable), Silene guicciardii (Indeterminate), Stachys swainsonii swainsonii (Rare), Poa trichophylla (Rare), Campanula aizoon ssp. aizooides (Vulnerable), Erodium chrysanthum (Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List of threatened species (1993), also includes the species Euphorbia orphanidis (Rare), Centaurea musarum (Rare), Abies cephalonica (Rare), Galium asparagifolium (Indeternminate). Geranium humbertii, Lactuca intricata, Helictotrichon aetolicum, Scutellaria rupestris ssp. parnassica, Acer opalus ssp. hyrcanum var. reginae-amaliae are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81). The species O. luciliae scopulorum, Erodium chrysanthum, Aquilegia ottonis ssp. ottonis, and Campanula aizoon ssp. aizooides are included in the Corine Checklist of threatened plants. The Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) also protects the species Viola poetica, Veronica erinoides, Veronica thymifolia. Pinguicula crystallina ssp. hirtiflora is protected by the Bern Convention (1992) (cited on the list as P. crystallina, possibly referring to P. crystallina ssp. crystallina).Asperula lutea, Anthemis spruneri, Cirsium herdreichi, and Sesleria vaginalis. Minuartia stellata (an endemic of Greece & S. Albania). Scutellaria orientalis ssp. alpina and Campanula trichocalycina (at scattered locations) are rare, in Greece. Poa thessala, Acer heldreichii, Anthyllis vulneraria ssp. bulgarica, Anthyllis vulneraria ssp. pindicola, Carum heldreichii, Taraxacum gracilens , Campanula spatulata ssp. spatulata , Sesleria tenerrima, Arabis bryoides, Arenaria conferta ssp. conferta, Crocus veluchensis, , Verbascum graecum, Dianthus viscidus, Lilium chalcedonicum, Silene radicosa ssp. radicosa, Minuartia stellata, Malcolmia orsiniana ssp. angulifolia, Dianthus viscidus, Rhamnus saxatilis ssp. prunifolius, Dianthus integer ssp. minutiflorus, Geocaryum pindicolum, Helleborus cyclophyllus, Hieracium parnassi , Sesleria tener rima, Rumex kerneri, Sideritis raeseri ssp. raeseri (=Sideritis sicula ssp. raeseri), Cerastium decalvans, Silene caesia, Taraxacum gracilens, Crataegus heldreichii, Crocus sieberi ssp. sublimis and Carum graecum ssp. graecum are endemic to the Balkan peninsula. Carlina frigida is a species occurring in Greece and possibly extending to Albania. Euphorbia amygdaloides ssp. heldreichii is endemic to Greece and Albania. Galium incanum ssp. incanum is a species with distribution in Greece, Anatolia. Erigeron epiroticus is a species occurring in the S.W. part of the Balkan peninsula and locally in Italy. Acantholimon echinus ssp. echinus is a species with distribution in Greece and W Anatolia. Amelanchier ovalis ssp. cretica is a species with distribution in Sicily and Greece. Astragalus thracicus ssp. parnassi is a plant with distribution in Sterea Ellada, Thessalia, Samos, occurring only in W Anatolia out of Greece. Campanula trichocalycina (=Asyneuma trichocalycinum) is a rather rare plant with scattered localities in Greece (distribution Balkan peninsula, Sicily, Italy). Festuca polita occurs only in W. Anatolia out of Greece. Geranium macrostylum is a species with East Mediterranean distribution occurring in Albania, S Jugoslavia, W & C Anatolia, Greece. Lamium garganicum ssp. garganicum is a species with distribution in S & C Greece and S Italy. Ornithogalum refractum is species occurring in SE Europe, Anatolia and Caucasus, obviously rare in Greece. Scutellaria rupestris ssp. adenotricha is almost confined to Greece (just extending to S Albania). Silene marschalli is a species of SW Asia occurring only on Parnassos in Greece and Europe. Valantia aprica is a balkan endemic (Greece, Albania)Vertebrates: The following species are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81): Dryomys nitedula wingei, Sciurus vulgaris, Rana dalmatina, Rana graeca, Salamandra salamandra, Triturus vulgaris, Triturus alpestris (including subspecies). The species Dryomys nitedula wingei, Rana dalmatina, Rana graeca are also considered species of Community importance, included in Annex IV of the Directive 92/43/EEC.Invertebrates:The following species are considered in need of protection in Europe (Legakis, 1995): Carcharodus flocciferous (Rare), Iolana iolas (Rare), Styrmonidia w-alba (Vulnerable), Thersmonia thetis (Endangered). Parnaasius apollo is considered an endangered species in Europe and is protected by international conventions (Bern, CITES) as well as by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81), and included in the IUCN Red List of threatened species as «Rare». The Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) protects the species Leptidea duponcheli, Cyaniris helena, Hipparchia aristaeus and Thersmonia thetis.