|Σχόλιο για τις αξίες
||The presence of a great number of endemic or important species (e.g., Arenaria gionaea, etc.) in the mountain range of Ghiona, especially in the rocky formations of its summits and the steep slopes of the ravines, makes the area of great ecological importance. This is also confirmed by the rediscovery of Solenanthus stamineus, a plant species considered almost extinct from Europe, as it was not found on Mt. Chelmos during recent years, although it was found recently on Mt. Killini. Consequently, measures must be taken for the protection and conservation of this species. The following species have been allocated motivation D for the following reasons: Euphorbia capitulata, a rare species endemic to the Balkan peninsula; Helictotrichon aetolicum, a Balkan endemic; Cynoglottis barrelieri subsp. serpentinicola, a mountainous plant of rocky places distributed on the Mts. of Sterea Ellada, N Pindhos and North Cental in Greece, but also in Yugoslavia and SC Anatolia, which is included in the IUCN Red Data Book within the category "Rare"; Arabis bryoides, which is rare and occurs only in Greece, Albania and Yugoslavia. Pinguicula crystallina subsp. hirtiflora (=P. hirtiflora) is included in the Bern Convention is listed in section 3.3 with motivation C. Moreover to the above mentioned taxa incorporated in Motivation D, some comments must be made on the geographical distribution of the rest species which belong to the following categories: a) Balkan endemics: Poa thessala, Minuartia stellata, Acer heldreichi, Dianthus integer subsp. minutiflorus, Achillea holosericea, Astragalus creticus subsp. rumelicus, Campanula spatulata subsp. spatulata, Herniaria parnassica subsp. parnassica,Hieracium cymosum subsp. heldreichianum, Myosotis alpestris subsp. suaveolens, Valantia aprica, Allium phthioticum, Arabis bryoides, Arenaria conferta subsp. conferta, Bromus cappadocicus subsp. lacmonicus, Crocus veluchensis, Hieracium naegelianum, Hieracium parnassi, Pedicularis graeca, Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp. taygetea, Silene caesia, Viola aetolica, Cirsium appendiculatum, Peucedanum oligophyllum, Silene radicosa subsp. radicosa, Carlina frigida, Cerastium banaticum subsp. speciosum, Galium anisophyllum subsp. plebeium, Galium hellenicum, Helleborus cyclophyllus, Hypericum rumeliacum subsp. apollinis, Lamium bifidum subsp. balcanicum, Nepeta spruneri, Scutellaria rupestris subsp. adenotricha, Sideritis raeseri subsp. raeseri, Thlaspi microphyllum, Trisetum flavescens subsp. tenue, Astragalus lacteus, Onosma psammophila, Verbascum graecum, Asperula aristata subsp. condensata, Asperula purpurea subsp. apiculata, Geocaryum pindicolum, Scorzonera purpurea subsp. rosea, Scrophularia laciniata, Senecio thapsoides, Sesleria tenerrima. b) Species distributed in the Balkan peninsula and Anatolia: Aethionema saxatile subsp. oreophilum, Carduus tmoleus, Geranium macrostylum, Saxifraga sempervivum, Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaubardii, Pimpinella tragium subsp. polyclada, Arenaria filicaulis subsp. graeca, Achillea fraasii, Galium incanum subsp. incanum, Ornithogalum oligophyllum, Rhamnus saxatilis subsp. prunifolius, Anchusa serpentinicola, Anthemis tinctoria subsp. parnassica, Ptilotrichum cyclocarpum subsp. cyclocarpum, Acantholimon echinus subsp. echinus, Convolvulus boissieri subsp. compactus, Saxifraga sibthorpii. c) The remaining species present an interesting distribution range. Some of the above mentioned species are incorporated in one of the IUCN Red Data Book categories (WCMC 1993) : Allium phtioticum (R), Anchusa serpentinicola (R), Geocaryum pindicolum (nt), Aquilegia ottonis subsp. ottonis (R), Astragalus lacteus (R), Convolvulus libanoticus (R), Solenanthus stamineus (nt). Concerning the vertebrate fauna (excluding birds), some of the species recorded in this site are listed in Annex II of the Directive 92/43/E.E.C (see section 3.2). The wolf Canis lupus, which is a priority species of this Directive, is present in the extended forest of the northern Gkiona mountain crest that connects the mountains of eastern central Greece with the Pindos mountain range, and permits these animals to move from one area to another. The special ecological significance of this site is also evident by the existence of the Chamois, Rupicapra rupicapra balcanica, in the cliffs of the alpine zone. It is necessary to mention that this taxon is known to occur on only 10 mountains of central and northern Greece.The wolf and the chamois are also threatened species in Greece, placed in the threat category "Vulnerable" and "Rare" respectively, according to the Red Data Book; both animals are also evaluated by the Bern Convention.The quality of the site is strenghtened by the presence of some Other and Greek Important vertebrate species (section 3.3). One of them the Roe Deer Carpeolus carpeolus is a threatened species in Greece placed in the threat category "Vulnerable" according to Red Data Book (motivation A). This species has the southernmost area of its distribution in Greece on Gkiona mountain (motivation D). The lizard Podarcis erhardii livadiaca is a Greek endemic taxon with a limited distribution in eastern central Greece and Peloponnisos (motivation B). All the non-bird vertebrates of the section 3.3, are mentioned in the Bern Convention except the Wild Boar Sus scrofa (of which only the western European subspecies meridionalis is included), and the wood mouse Apodemus flavicollis. The listing in the Bern Convention justifies the motivation C given to the respective taxa. Also, all amphibians and reptiles (except the viperid snake Vipera ammodytes) and the mammals Sciurus vulgaris and Mustela nivalis, are protected by the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981 (motivation D). The toad Bufo viridis and the colubrid snake Coronella austriaca are additionally marked with D since they are mentioned by the CORINE-Biotopes Project. The Wild Boar is indicated with D since one of its southernmost Greek populations lives in this site. The Snow Vole, Microtus nivalis, receives the same motivation since this site is one of its few distant recorded localities in Greece. Finally, the wood mouse Apodemus flavicollis brauneri is marked with D since it is a Balkan endemic taxon.An important avifauna has been reported from this site including many birds of prey (Gypaetus barbatus, Neophron percnopterus, Gyps fulvus, Circaetus gallicus, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco peregrinus, etc.) which are threatened species in Greece. Some other rare and threatened bird taxa are also known (Dendrocopos leucotos, Lanius minor, etc.) to occur here. Gkiona is considered as the most important mountainous ecosystem of central Greece and one of the five most important in all the country. The other four are Olympos, Rodopi, Chelmos and Lefka Ori. From a zoological point of view, it is necessary to focus on the following:a) The occurrence of the largest Chamois flock.b) The permanent presence of the wolf. This fact is significant since the species is becoming extinct. Greece is one of the only three European countries maintaining viable wolf populations, but of unknown size.c) The distribution areas of the Roe Deer, Wild Boar and Chamois show their southernmost limits in this site. For the Chamois this site is the southernmost in Europe.d) The fact that Gkiona is an EC Important Bird Area. The invertebrate species listed in section 3.3 with motivation C is protected by the Bern Convention. The invertebrate species listed in section 3.3 with motivation D are protected by the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981 and one of them by the IUCN Red List. Pieris ergane is included in the "Listing of biotopes in Europe according to their significance for invertebrates".