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||Although it is a quite degraded and virtually unprotected area, it has a great importance because of: - The nesting of threatened birds, especially birds of prey. - The presence of species that face the danger of extinction, e.g., the presence of Canis lupus, near the southern boundary of its distribution. - The presence of many endemic and local endemic species of invertebrates (Orthoptera and Coleoptera) and of plants, most of them legally protected.OTHER IMPORTANT SPECIES WITH MOTIVATION DPlants: The endemic species Abies cephalonica and Asperula oetaea are included in the IUCN list of threatened plants characterized as rare.The endemic species Cirsium heldreichii, Sesleria vaginalis, Anthemis spruneri and Veronica erinoides are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81). The endemic species Cerastium brachypetalum ssp. pindigenum is a rare species according to A. Strid (1986).Valantia aprica is a balkan endemic (Greece, Albania).Lactuca intricata is protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81).Acantholimon echinus ssp. lycaonicum is a balkan endemic and the only european species in a genus well represented in Turkey and Iran. Vincetoxicum funebre is a species of E. Turkey, N Iran and Caucasus occurring only at high altitudes on Tymfristos in Europe.Allium schoenoprasum is in Greece a rare species of damp alpine grassland and rocky places. The species is widespread in arctic and cold temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, but scattered on mountains in the southern part of its range. Atraphaxis billardieri is an isolated representative of an asiatic genus, a rare species on rocky macchie on limestone in Greece and in Europe. Alchemilla gracilis is a european species, occurring only at high altitudes on Tymfristos in Greece. Chenorhinum origanifolium is a species of SW Europe recorded only from Tymfristos in Greece, not found again since its original collection in 1842 (at 1800 m). Astragalus thracicus ssp. parnassi occurs in Sterea Ellada, Thessalia, Samos and only in W Anatolia out of Greece. Festuca polita is a species occurring o nly in W. Turkey out of Greece. Geranium macrostylum a species with East Mediterranean distribution: Albania, S. former Jugoslavia, W. & C. Anatolia, Greece. Ornithogalum oligophyllum is a species with distribution in the Balkan peninsula and Anatolia. Thymus leucotrichus is a species of the mountains of Greece and Anatolia.Lilium chalcedonicum, Geocaryum pindicolum, Anthemis arvensis ssp. cyllenea, Allium phtioticum and Minuartia stellata are species endemic to Greece and Albania. Carlina frigida is a balkan endemic occurring in S. & C. Greece probably extending to Albania and SW former Jugoslavia. Erysimum cephalonicum is a species endemic to the mountains of north, west and central Greece and of Albania. Scutellaria rupestris ssp. adenotricha is almost confined to Greece (just extending to S Albania). Draba lasiocarpa ssp. dolichostyla is a balkan endemic (distribution in Sterea Ellada and Albania).Digitalis laevigata, Dianthus gracilis ssp. gracilis, Malcolmia orsiniana ssp. angulifolia, Campanula spatulata ssp. spatulata, Hieracium parnassi, Dianthus integer ssp. minutiflorus, Nepeta spruneri, Silene caesia, Viola aetolica, Taraxacum gracilens, Arabis bryoides, Poa thessala, Crocus veluchensis, Silene radicosa ssp. radicosa, Helleborus cyclophyllus, Dianthus viscidus, Carum graecum ssp. graecum, Anthyllis vulneraria ssp. bulgarica, Anthyllis vulneraria ssp. pindicola and Alchemilla heterotricha are balkan endemics. Galium incanum ssp. incanum is a species with distribution in Greece, Anatolia.The species Barbarea sicula (vulnerable) Erodium guicciardi (rare), Linum aroanium (rare), Galium degenii (rare), Seseli parnassicum (rare) and Poa trichophylla (rare) are included in the IUCN list of threatened plants and are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81). Rosa arvensis is included in the IUCN list of threatened plants characterized as endangered at World level.Scabiosa taygetea ssp. taygetea, Geranium humbertii (=G. subcaulescens) are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81).Note: 1) Thymus rechingeri ssp. macrocalyx is a rare plant endemic to Tymfristos; 2) the only source for the occurence of Allium parnassicum occurs on Tymfristos is the Corine Database; 3) The IUCN characterizations given concern the plant's status in Greece.Invertebrates: The species Agrodiaetus damon and Carcharodus flocciferus (rare) are threatened (Heath, ); Lycaeides argyrognomon is included in the European list of threatened invertebrates (1991).The species Boloria graeca, Colias aurorina, Leptidea duponcheli, Cyaniris helena, Thersamonia thetis, Agrodiaetus ripartii, Agrodiaetus admetus, Clossiana dia, Erebia ottomana, Erebia melas are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81). E. ottomana is also IUCN list of threatened species (1988) characterized as rare. Brenthis (= Boloria) hecate is included in the Corine checklist of threatened invertebrates. Plebejus pylaon is included in the Corine Checklist of threatened invertebrates and considered a rare species (Koomen P. and P.J. van Helsdingen, 1993; Legakis, 1995).