Στοιχεία Τόπου

Επίπεδα τόπων:

Σχεδίαση επιφανειών
Κωδικοί τόπων

Χαρτογραφικό υπόβαθρο:

Open cycle map
Open Street map
Κτηματολόγιο Α.Ε.

Γενικά Στοιχεία

Κατηγορία Τόπου Βιότοπος NATURA
Κωδικός Τόπου GR2310014
Κύριος Χαρακτήρας
Φυσικό Τοπίο
Δομημένο Τοπίο
Διοικητική Υποδιαίρεση Νομός Αιτωλοακαρνανίας
Συνολική Έκταση (ha) 3272.70
Χερσαία Έκταση (ha) 3272.7
Συνολική Περίμετρος (km) 24.3
Μέγιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 432.0
Ελάχιστο Υψόμετρο (m)
Ένταξη στο Υπάρχον Θεσμικό Πλαίσιο


Τύπος Τοπίου
Περιγραφή Τόπου The freshwater lake Voulkaria is situated in the centre of the Sterna peninsula, at the north-western part of Aitoloakarnania prefecture and southwards of the entrance to the Amvrakikos Gulf. It covers an area of approximately 940 ha. This area shows strong water level fluctuations depending on the annual rainfall. Voulkaria is a shallow lake with maximum depth of 2.5 m. It is developed on a tectonic graben and is considered to be the result of combined action of: 1) tectonics, 2) karstification, and 3) sedimentation of clastic materials (gravel, sand, clay). Later some Neogene sediments of lacustrine or coastal origin, were deposited in the area, and covered by alluvial deposits. The wider area of the lake consists mainly of Mesozoic limestones and dolomites, Neogenic sediments (marls, sandstones, conglomerates), as well as alluvial deposits (Leontaris, 1972). The greatest part of the plain surrounding the lake comprises mainly a series of streams and smaller water courses with varying deposits. Peat formation takes place in wetland areas where no agricultural activities are present. The lake has a large drainage basin, which to the west comprises the eastern part of Asprochorto hill and on the other sides a plain area with extensive agricultural fields. Voulkaria has vague marshy sides and is connected to the sea by an artificial ditch with a length of 1400 m. This ditch (named "Agios Nikolaos" or "Kleopatra") is at the western part of the lake and empties into Agios Nikolaos bay. During the winter, when the lake overflows, a flow of water from the lake to the sea is observed, while during the summer the opposite flow is encountered. This summer flow resulted in the increase of salinity of the lake, which strongly influenced agricultural activities within the surrounding area. This problem has already been confronted since 1964 by controlling the entrance of sea water by closing the ditch during the summer. Near the ditch, water ponds and marshes with grassy vegetation including Carex vulpina, C. divisa, Eleocharis palustris, Juncus heldreichianus, Equisetum telmateia, and Oenanthe silaifolia, etc. occur. In the middle of the infralittoral zone of this side, the species Nympaea alba, and Potamogeton nodosus are observed, while in the lower infralittoral zone the species Myriophyllum spicatum and Potamogeton lucens predominate (Koumpli-Sovantzi, 1983). The water has a pH of 6.5 and in several places the species Hydrocharis morus-ranae is present (Economidou, 1981). At the littoral zone of the lake the herbs predominate forming extensive grasslands, while shrubs (Vitex agnus-castus, Rubus ulmifolius, Paliurus aculeatus, Myrtus communis, Tamarix sp. etc.) and riparian trees (Salix, Ulmus, Fraxinus etc.) occur sporadically forming clusters mainly at the south-eastern side of the lake (near Fraxias). A characteristic feature is that within the upper infralittoral zone, the species Phragmites australis, grows in an almost continuous zone of considerable width. In the extensive reed beds, the species Typha domingensis, Carex vulpina, Pulicaria dysenterica, Cladium mariscus, Lythrum salicaria, Lycopus europaeus, Eupatorium cannabinum, Calystegia sepium, Samolus valerandi, Mentha aquatica, etc., exist. To the west of the lake the rocky hill of Asprochorto exists, where shrubby vegetation along
Κατάσταση Τόπου
Εγκατάλειψη οικισμών
Τάση Κατάστασης Τόπου
Ιστορία και εξέλιξη του τόπου
Σημεία με καλή Θέα
Μονοπάτια Περίπατοι


Οικολογική Αξία
Κοινωνικοοικονομική/πολιτιστική Αξία
Αισθητική Αξία
Σχόλιο για τις αξίες This is an important site for breeding and passage waterbirds.Voulkaria is a sizable lake, which is in very good condition and has beautiful scenery. It is surrounded by an extensive reed-bed of considerable width, which varies from 10-500 m.The plant composition of this lake includes the significant species Nympaea alba, which has very degraded populations in Greece and hence requires protection. Also interesting is the endangered aquatic species Cladium mariscus that occurs in the reed-bed zone. The species Alopecurus creticus, Callitriche leniscula, Potamogeton coloratus, Ranunculus baudotii, and Utricularia vulgaris, are also of great interest from a chorological point of view, as they exhibit a limited or scattered distribution in Greece. This site is also a refuge for an interesting wild fauna, especially for Avifauna. The otter, Lutra lutra, is recorded as occurring in this site and listed in Annex II of the Directive 92/43/EEC. Although very rare, the otter's presence in Lake Voulkaria indicates that this wetland maintains a rather good environmental condition, since it is known that this animal is a good bioindicator. The otter is a threatened species in Greece, placed in the threat category "Vulnerable" according to the Greek Red Data Book. It is also considered as part of the Amvrakikos Gulf wetland system, which is of international importance according to the Ramsar Convention. Moreover, this area is protected by the Directive 79/409/EEC and the Barcelona Convention. Voulkaria lake also offers irrigation to the surrounding area and is widely used for fishing.


Σχόλιο για τις απειλές-διαταραχές
Τρωτότητα The eutrophication of the littoral zones is a consequence resulting from their being loaded with fertilizers and pesticides from the surrounding agricultural land. Overgrazing is observed around the lake. The strong presence of Asphodelus aestivus in the grasslands reinforces this fact. The riparian forests are strongly influenced by land reclamation and are hence only represented by very few scattered clusters of trees. The animal habitats are influenced by the construction of irrigation networks, the expansion of arable farming and grazing. Illegal hunting declines the bird populations and has almost exterminated the otter. The latter animal also suffers from pollution of its habitat caused by the unprocessed sewage of stock farms and intensively cultivated land.
Προτεραιότητα προστασίας

Πανίδα και Χλωρίδα

Χαρακτηριστικά Ενδιαιτήματα
Αξιόλογα Φυτά
Αξιόλογα Θηλαστικά
Αξιόλογα Πτηνά
Acrocephalus arundinaceus (Τσιχλοποταμίδα)
Acrocephalus scirpaceus (Καλαμοποταμίδα)
Alcedo atthis (Αλκυόνα)
Anas acuta (Ψαλίδα)
Anas crecca (Κιρκίρι)
Anas penelope (Σφυριχτάρι)
Anas platyrhynchos (Πρασινοκέφαλη)
Anas querquedula (Σαρσέλα)
Apus apus apus (Σταχτάρα)
Ardea cinerea (Σταχτοτσικνιάς)
Ardea purpurea (Πορφυροτσικνιάς)
Ardeola ralloides (Κρυπτοτσικνιάς)
Aythya ferina (Γκισάρι)
Aythya nyroca (Βαλτόπαπια)
Buteo buteo buteo (Γερακίνα)
Chlidonias niger (Μαυρογλάρονο)
Ciconia ciconia (Λευκοπελαργός)
Circaetus gallicus (Φιδαητός)
Circus aeruginosus (Καλαμόκιρκος)
Cygnus olor (Κύκνος)
Egretta alba (Αργυροτσικνιάς)
Egretta garzetta (Λευκοτσικνιάς)
Emberiza schoeniclus intermedia (Καλαμοτσίχλονο)
Fulica atra (Φαλαρίδα)
Gallinago gallinago (Μεκατσίνι)
Himantopus himantopus (Καλαμοκανάς)
Hirundo rustica rustica (Χελιδόνι)
Ixobrychus minutus (Μικροτσικνιάς)
Larus ridibundus (Καστανοκέφαλος γλάρος)
Nycticorax nycticorax (Νυχτοκόρακας)
Pelecanus crispus (Αργυλοπελεκάνος)
Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Κορμοράνος)
Philomachus pugnax (Μαχητής)
Plegadis falcinellus
Podiceps cristatus (Σκουροβουτηχτάρι)
Podiceps nigricollis (Μαυροβουτηχτάρι)
Tachybaptus ruficollis (Νανοβουτηχτάρι)
Tringa glareola (Λασπότριγγας)
Αξιόλογα Αμφίβια / Ερπετά
Αξιόλογα Ψάρια
Αξιόλογα Ασπόνδυλα
Σχόλια για τα είδη