Στοιχεία Τόπου

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Κτηματολόγιο Α.Ε.

Γενικά Στοιχεία

Κατηγορία Τόπου Βιότοπος NATURA
Κωδικός Τόπου GR2130007
Κύριος Χαρακτήρας
Φυσικό Τοπίο
Δομημένο Τοπίο
Διοικητική Υποδιαίρεση Νομός Ιωαννίνων
Συνολική Έκταση (ha) 20123.52
Χερσαία Έκταση (ha) 20123.52
Συνολική Περίμετρος (km) 63.4
Μέγιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 2286.0
Ελάχιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 657.0
Ένταξη στο Υπάρχον Θεσμικό Πλαίσιο


Τύπος Τοπίου
Περιγραφή Τόπου Lakmos is a large mountain situated south of Metsovo village at the boundaries of the Ioannina and Trikala prefectures, belonging to S Pindos mountain range. Its highest peak is Peristeri with an altitude of 2295 m. The main rock in the area's substrate is limestone, in some places mixed with flysch. Lakmos is a bare mountain, characterized by alpine and subalpine pastures, rocky and stony slopes, cliffs, mountain streams and springs. Acheloos River as well as the Arachtos river tributaries Kallaritikos and Metsovitikos rise in the area. The mountain shows strong erosion because of intense deforestation. The forest zone is very restricted and occurs mainly in the form of stands, as in the case of Abies borisii-regis which forms extensive stands in the north-northeastern part of the mountain. On the eastern slopes, at lower altitudes the Abies borisii-regis forest is mixed with scattered individuals of Quercus and other deciduous trees and is also interrupted by pastures. Limited reforestation with Pinus nigra has been made on the western and northern slopes between 600-800 m altitude. Lakmos area is also known for its traditional extensive sheep raising.
Κατάσταση Τόπου
Εγκατάλειψη οικισμών
Τάση Κατάστασης Τόπου
Ιστορία και εξέλιξη του τόπου
Σημεία με καλή Θέα
Μονοπάτια Περίπατοι


Οικολογική Αξία
Κοινωνικοοικονομική/πολιτιστική Αξία
Αισθητική Αξία
Σχόλιο για τις αξίες The site is important for species associated with alpine grassland, cliffs and scree. Species of concern include Aquila chrysaetos and Monticola saxatilis .The area is also important due to its characteristic vegetation communities above the timber line in which many Greek endemics as well as rare and threatened plant taxa exist. Also very significant is the presence of many Balkan endemic taxa. Of the Greek endemics (section 3.3, motivation B) Abies cephalonica and Scorzonera purpurea subsp. peristerica are included in the WCMC Plants Database as "Rare". The plant taxa listed in section 3.3 with motivation D belong to the categories outlined below according to their distributions: a) Taxa occurring in the Balkan Peninsula and Anatolia: Carduus tmoleus, Geranium macrostylum, Ornithogalum oligophyllum, Saxifraga sempervivum, Silene bupleuroides, Thymus ongicaulis, subsp. chaubardii and T. thracicus. We must also mention the presence of Pimpinella tragium subsp. polyclada which occurs in Greece and Anatolia, as well as Dianthus cruentus and Dianthus viscidus, distributed in the Balkan Peninsula and as far as NW Turkey; b) Taxa occurring in the Balkan Peninsula and Italy: Ptilotrichum cyclocarpum subsp. pindicum (=Aurinia rupestris), Carum heldreichii, Athamanta macedonica, Gnaphalium hoppeanum, Hieracium naegelianum, Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp. taygetea, Scabiosa taygetea subsp. taygetea, Senecio scopolii, Silene roemeri. Also, Thesium parnassi, distributed in the Balkans, Italy and Sicily, and Barbarea sicula, occurring in Greece, Italy and Sicily. Barbarea sicula additionally receive motivation D since it is included in the WCMC Plants Database as "Vulnerable"; c) Balkan endemics: all the remaining taxa. Of them, Arenaria conferta subsp. serpentinii and Campanula tymphaea occur in Greece only on Pindos mountain range. Allium phthioticum, Galium degenii and Scutellaria rupestris additionally receive motivation D since they are listed in the WCMC Plants Database under the category "Rare". Scutellaria rupestris is also included in the UNEP as "Rare". The importance of the fauna of this site is clearly indicated by the presence the Brown Bear Ursus arctos, which is a priority species mentioned in Annex II of the Directive 92/43/EEC. Also, a toad and a viperid snake included in the same annex have been recorded as occurring in this mountainous site (section 3.2). Two of them are considered threatened in Greece mentioned in the Greek Red Data Book under the threat categories "Endangered" (Ursus arctus), and "Rare" (Vipera ursinii). An endemic subspecies of the very interesting viper Vipera ursinii graeca is known to live on Mt. Lakmos; its population status is critical making the taking of urgent and effective additional protective measures absolutely necessary. The lizards Lacerta agilis and Podarcis erhardii, the hare Lepus europaeus and the wildcat Felis silvestris are marked with motivation D since the former shows the southernmost edge of its Greek distribution in this site, the second is endemic to the Balkans, and the two mammalian taxa are considered very rare in Greece. Threatened birds of prey are included in the avifauna of this mountain (E.g., Aquila chrysaetos, Falco subbuteo, Gyps fulvus). The invertebrate species listed in section 3.3 with motivation D are protected by the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981.


Σχόλιο για τις απειλές-διαταραχές
Τρωτότητα The whole area of the mountain is intensively grazed and this is the most important threat to the flora of this site. New roads are opened and limited illegal tree-felling occurs in the already much deforested Lakmos area. In most meadow areas of this site intensive grazing constitutes a virtual threat for the viper Vipera ursinii because of the alteration of its habitat; this is also the case for the lizard species, although to a somewhat lower degree. Illegal hunting and shooting are the main threats to the mammals and birds of the site. Protection of the remaining forests is crucial as these are of high importance for the wolf, bear and the wildcat. Threats include the use of poisoned baits for raptors.
Προτεραιότητα προστασίας

Πανίδα και Χλωρίδα

Χαρακτηριστικά Ενδιαιτήματα
Αξιόλογα Φυτά
Abies borisii-regis (Μακεδονικό έλατο)
Abies cephalonica (Κεφαλλονίτικο έλατο)
Acer heldreichii heldreichii (Αγριοπλάτανος)
Alchemilla indivisa
Alkanna noneiformis
Allium phthioticum
Anthyllis vulneraria bulgarica
Asperula aristata thessala
Aurinia gionae
Barbarea sicula
Carum heldreichii
Cirsium appendiculatum
Corydalis parnassica
Dianthus integer minutiflorus
Erysimum cephalonicum
Gentiana cruciata cruciata
Geranium aristatum
Jovibarba heuffelii
Minuartia stellata
Scorzonera purpurea peristerica
Sedum apoleipon
Sedum atratum
Silene radicosa
Thymus thracicus
Trifolium parnassi
Viola orphanidis orphanidis
Αξιόλογα Θηλαστικά
Canis lupus (Λύκος)
Felis silvestris morea (Αγριόγατος του Μωριά)
Lepus europaeus carpathous (Λαγός της Καρπάθου)
Martes foina (Κουνάβι)
Mustela nivalis galinthias (Νυφίτσα)
Rupicapra rupicapra balcanica (Αγριόγιδο)
Ursus arctos (Αρκούδα)
Αξιόλογα Πτηνά
Anthus campestris campestris (Χαμοκελάδα)
Apus melba melba (Σκεπαρνάς)
Aquila chrysaetos chrysaetos (Χρυσαητός)
Buteo buteo buteo (Γερακίνα)
Circaetus gallicus (Φιδαητός)
Columba palumbus palumbus (Φάσσα)
Dryocopus martius martius (Μαυροτσικλητάρα)
Emberiza hortulana (Βλάχος)
Erithacus rubecula balcanica (Κοκκινολαίμης των Βαλκανίων)
Falco naumanni (Κιρκινέζι)
Falco subbuteo (Δεντρογέρακο)
Gyps fulvus (Όρνιο)
Hirundo rustica rustica (Χελιδόνι)
Monticola saxatilis (Πετροκότσυφας)
Motacilla cinerea (Σταχτοσουσουράδα)
Oenanthe oenanthe oenanthe (Σταχτοπετρόκλης)
Otus scops (Γκιώνης)
Pernis apivorus (Σφηκιάρης)
Αξιόλογα Αμφίβια / Ερπετά
Bombina variegata scabra (Κιτρινοβομβίνα)
Bufo viridis viridis (Πρασινόφρυνος)
Lacerta agilis bosnica (Αμμόσαυρα)
Lacerta trilineata cariensis (Τρανόσαυρα της Ικαρίας)
Podarcis erhardii amorgensis (Σιλιβούτι της Αμοργού)
Rana graeca (Ελληνικός Βάτραχος)
Salamandra salamandra salamandra (Σαλαμάνδρα)
Telescopus fallax fallax (Αγιόφιδο)
Vipera ursinii graeca (Οχιά των λιβαδιών)
Αξιόλογα Ψάρια
Αξιόλογα Ασπόνδυλα
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