Στοιχεία Τόπου

Επίπεδα τόπων:

Σχεδίαση επιφανειών
Κωδικοί τόπων

Χαρτογραφικό υπόβαθρο:

Open cycle map
Open Street map
Κτηματολόγιο Α.Ε.

Γενικά Στοιχεία

Κατηγορία Τόπου Βιότοπος NATURA
Κωδικός Τόπου GR1310002
Κύριος Χαρακτήρας
Φυσικό Τοπίο
Δομημένο Τοπίο
Διοικητική Υποδιαίρεση Νομός Γρεβενών
Συνολική Έκταση (ha) 14660.48
Χερσαία Έκταση (ha) 14660.48
Συνολική Περίμετρος (km) 67.8
Μέγιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 2170.0
Ελάχιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 1002.0
Ένταξη στο Υπάρχον Θεσμικό Πλαίσιο


Τύπος Τοπίου
Περιγραφή Τόπου Ethnikos Drymos Pindou (Pindos National Park) is a representative part of the Pindos mountain range and one of the greatest and most significant parks in Greece, situated on an isolated mountainous area of SW Macedonia in the northeastern part of the Pindos mountain range. It was established in 1966 and is characterized by dense forests of Pinus nigra and Fagus sylvatica, rocky ridges, high peaks (c. 2000 m), permanent, rapid streams, many springs and mountain lakes. The site's area includes the core zone of the park which covers the greatest part of the Valia Kalda valley and the slopes of the surrounding peaks. These peaks form a horseshoe round Valia Kalda leaving an opening westwards. Two small mountain streams, those of Salatoura and Zesto Rema, begin from the valley joining a larger stream called Arkoudorema, which is a tributary of the River Aoos. Also, several other small mountain streams, from the southern slopes of the valley, flow in Arkoudorema. Furthermore, three small mountain lakes exist in the area. The first one, named Lakkos, is situated at an altitude of 1750 m, on the west of the pass Diaselo Stavros and two others north of the Flega peak at an altitude of about 1930 m. The Pinus nigra forest is the dominant vegetation type in the area, beginning from Arkoudorema at 1300 m and reaching up to 1700 m. The Fagus sylvatica forest covers the northern slopes up to 1800 m. Very remarkable is the presence of Pinus heldreichii growing from 1500 m to the peaks, usually present in solitary individuals. The dry places and the lower parts of the valley are characterized by the domination of Buxus sempervirens. Among the trees of Pinus nigra and Fagus sylvatica some individuals of Abies borisii-regis are scattered.
Κατάσταση Τόπου
Εγκατάλειψη οικισμών
Τάση Κατάστασης Τόπου
Ιστορία και εξέλιξη του τόπου
Σημεία με καλή Θέα
Μονοπάτια Περίπατοι


Οικολογική Αξία
Κοινωνικοοικονομική/πολιτιστική Αξία
Αισθητική Αξία
Σχόλιο για τις αξίες The area is a refuge for many plant and animal species. Regarding birds, there are significant populations of woodpecker species such as the Black, Grey and White-backed Woodpecker, as well as Black Storks, Golden Eagles and Woodlarks. The most important places for the gathering of rare plants are the northern slopes of the peaks of Aftia, Flega and Kapetan Kleidi. All the above places are very steep and difficult for grazing animals. Therefore in the area the natural regeneration of the forest is progressing normally and many rare plants are conserved. The serpentine soil, which is dominant in the area of the Pindos National Park favours the growing of rare Pindos endemic plant species (listed in section 3.3 with motivation B) such as Bornmuellera baldacii subsp. rechingeri, B. tymphaea, Silene pindicola and Centaurea vlachorum. Other species occurring here and being endemic to Greece are listed in sections 3.3 and 3.4 with motivation B. Of them, Allyssum heldreichii, Cerastium vourinense, Silene pindicola and Thlaspi epirotum are listed in the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981 as well as in the WCMC Plants Database under the category "Rare"; Silene haussknechtii is included in the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981, and in the WCMC Plants Database as "Vulnerable". Many interesting plants endemic to the Balkan peninsula (listed in sections 3.3 and 3.4 with motivation D) also occur in the area. These are: Abies borisii-regis, Aesculus hippocastanum (the individuals of which must be protected), Alyssum smolikanum and Gymnadenia frivaldii (two very rare species), Campanula hawkinsiana, Dianthus deltoides subsp. degenii, Dianthus haematocalyx subsp. pindicola, Lilium carniolicum subsp. albanicum (=L. albanicum), Anthemis arvensis subsp. cyllenea, Thymus stojanovii, Dianthus cruentus, Euphorbia glabriflora, Pinus heldreichii, Helleborus cyclophyllus, Herniaria parnassica subsp. parnassica, Festuca koritnicensis, Linum hologynum, Thymus teucrioides subsp. alpinus, Soldanella pindicola, Stachys scardica, Trifolium pilzii (only locality in Greece), Viola albanica, and Viola dukadjinica (the southernmost site of this species in the Balkan peninsula), Viola epirota and Onosma stellulata (recently discovered in Greece). Myosotis alpestris subsp. suaveolens, Plantago media subsp. pindica, Helictotrichon aetolicum, Hieracium waldsteinii, Allium phtioticum, Polygala alpestris subsp. croatica, Arenaria conferta subsp. serpentinii, Campanula tymphaea, Saxifraga rotundifolia subsp. taygeta, Crepis viscidula subsp. geracioides, Dianthus integer subsp. minutiflorus, Viola aetolica, Aubrieta scardica, Scorzonera purpurea subsp. rosea, Silene damboldtiana, S. schwarzenbergeri, Thlaspi typmphaeum (which has a disjunct distribution in Greece and S. Albania), Trifolium pignantii, Trinia glauca subsp. pindica, Carum graecum subsp. serpentinicum and Galium oreophilum. Aesculus hippocastanum, Alyssum smolikanum, Lilium carniolicum subsp. albanicum (=L. albanicum) and Campanula hawkinsiana additionaly receive the motivation D since they are protected by the Greek legislation (Presidential Decree 67/1981). Also, additionally receiving the same motivation are Silene damboldtiana and S. schwarzenbergeri since they are listed in the WCMC Plants Database as "Rare". Pinguicula crystallina subsp. hirtiflora (=P.hirtiflora), which is included in the Bern Convention, is listed in section 3.3 with motivation C. Digitalis ferruginea subsp. ferruginea (section 3.4, motivation D) is scattered in Greece.The presence of Pinus heldreichii in the area, as well as the presence of some small stands of Pinus sylvestris at the locality "Kokkina Pefka" (place Zioga of Valia Kalda) is also very important (section 3.3 with motivation D). Each stand of P. sylvestris consists of about some individuals scattered among the trees of Pinus nigra. This locality is the southernmost distribution site for the species in Europe and the single site on the Pindos range. We should also mention the occurrence of a) Geum coccineum, growing on the mountains of the Balkan peninsula and N. Anatolia, the presence of which in Greece is the southernmost site of this species in the Balkans; b) Aethionema saxatile subsp. oreophilum, occurring in the Balkan peninsula and western Anatolia, c) Atropa belladona, listed in the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981, d) Potentilla geoides which has a widely disjunct distribution in Greece and Crimea, e) Orobanche rechingeri, occurring in C and NW Greece and SW Anatolia, which is the only known serpentine endemic among parastic flowering plants in Europe. It is protected by the Greek Presidentail Decree 67/1981, f) Thymus longicaulis subsp. chaubardii, occurring in the S part of the Balkan peninsula extending to C Anatolia, g) Jovibarba heuffelii, occurring in the eastern Carpathians and the mountains of the Balkan Peninsula. All the above species are listed in sections 3.3 and 3.4 with motivation D. Furthermore, we must note the sporadic presence of Taxus baccata, Ilex aquifolium, Quercus pedunculiflora, Q.cerris, Fraxinus ornus, Ostrya carpinifolia, Populus alba and Platanus orientalis. The zoological significance of this site is clear because of the occurrence of some species listed in Annex II of the Directive 92/43/EEC. Among them the brown bear, Ursus arctos, is a priority species of the Directive. The extensive, dense coniferous and beech forests of this park are one of the most important habitats of the brown bear in Greece. As it was also mentioned for the brown bear in the Vikos-Aoos National Park, the Pindos bear population is the southernmost in Europe, separated from all European conspecific ones. The occurrence of Lynx lynx in the area is another strong indication of the importance of this site, since Lynx lynx is a very rare, cryptic species characterized by a patchy distribution in all southeastern Europe. The Chamois Rupicapra rupicapra balcanica, a Balkan endemic, occupies the northern slopes of the peaks of Aftia, Flega and Kapetan Kleidi and the western slopes of the peak Kakopleuri, which are very steep and rocky; it also lives in areas with beech forests. The population density fluctuates between 3-5 and even 20 individuals/100 ha. depending on the habitat productivity. The three small rivers crossing the area of the park have very clear water and are the well conserved habitat of the otter Lutra lutra. All the above mentioned mammals, as well as the bat Myotis blythi also existing in this site, are mentioned in the Greek Red Data Book (bear and lynx as "Endangered" Chamois as "Rare" and the rest as "Vulnerable"). Noteworthy is the occurrence of the small viper Vipera ursinii, which is another threatened animal of the Greek fauna considered as "Rare" by the Greek Red Data Book. The tendency of this animal to form small isolated populations and the fact that the Pindos mountain range is the southern limit of its distribution in Europe, clearly indicate the local population value and vulnerability. The fish Salmo macrostigma (S. trutta macrostigma according to Economidis 1991) is also a threatened taxon mentioned in the Greek Red Data Book under the categories of "Rare", "Vulnerable", and "Endangered", depending on the specific population. Among the 25 non-bird vertebrate taxa characterized as Other and Greek Important Species (sections 3.3 and 3.4), six are threatened in Greece and are included in the Greek Red Data Book under the categories "Endangered" (the bat species Nyctalus noctula, P. pipistrellus, P. savii), "Vulnerable" (the wolf Canis lupus and the Roe Deer C. capreolus) and "Insufficiently Known" (the mole Talpa caeca). All taxa of sections 3.3 and 3.4, except the mole Talpa caeca, are mentioned in the Bern Convention's list and are therefore given motivation C. Additionally, the same motivation is given to the Wildcat Felis silvestris and the wolf Canis lupus, since they are included in the animals of the CITES Convention. Most of them are also protected by the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981 (the exceptions concern the taxa Rana temporaria, Vipera ammodytes, Lepus europaeus, Martes foina, M. meles, Felis silvestris, Sus scrofa, C. capreolus and Canis lupus). Moreover, the taxa Coronella austriaca, Natrix tessellata, Nyctalus noctula, Pipistrellus savii, Felis silvestris and Canis lupus, are already evaluated by the CORINE-Biotopes Project. Canis lupus is also mentioned in the 1988 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals and in the European Red List of Globally Threatened Animals and PLants (UNEP). The Edible Dormouse Glis g. pindicus is a Balkan endemic, the frog Rana temporaria has the southernmost end of its European distribution in this site, and the hare Lepus europaeus and the wildcat Felis silvestris are generally rare animals in Greece. For all the above-mentioned reasons, the relevant taxa are allocated the D motivation. Finally, the occurrence of a very diverse and abundant avifauna justifies the listing of this site among the EC Important Bird Areas. The invertebrate species listed in section 3.3 and 3.4 with motivation D are protected by the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981. Pieris krueperi is also protected by the "Threatened Rhopalocera (butterflies) of Europe.


Σχόλιο για τις απειλές-διαταραχές
Τρωτότητα In the past the ecosystems of the Pindos National Park suffered significant human influences. The most serious danger to the forests of the area were extensive fires caused by cattle breeders to create meadows for grazing. These fires have destroyed large parts of the Pinus nigra and P. heldreichii forests. Since 1960, no fire has occurred in the park due to better protection of the forests by opening up many forest roads towards all directions. Furthermore, an observation post was established on the peak of Avgo, the highest in the area. The Pinus nigra forest doesn't seem to regenerate and this is due to grazing which has an immediate effect on the Pinus stands. A great number of sheep, goats and cows graze in the area from May to September. Other reasons for the lack of regeneration are the great density of the young Pinus stands and the dense grassy carpet under the sparse older stands. P. heldreichii shows some natural regeneration and its presence in solitary individuals forming partially wooded areas is rather due to human influence. On the northern slopes of the peaks of Aftia, Flega and Kapetan Kleidi, where because of the extremely steep ground, grazing is nearly impossible, old individuals of P. heldreichii (aged between 300 and 500 years old, some nearly 1000 years old) as well as many young ones grow. P. heldreichii must be considered as a rare species and be protected. The solitary individuals of Abies borisii-regis which grow in the Pinus nigra and Fagus silvatica forest, don't seem to regenerate and spread. The few stands of the very important Pinus sylvestris which occur in the area, seem to be the last remnants of a population which is tending to extinction. Their protection is quite necessary and this is also inferred from the fact that no natural regeneration of the species occurs. Because of the fires of the past, large areas of meadow have been formed, now very degraded from extensive grazing. The ground is frequently stripped and natural regeneration of the trees has stopped completely. Another notable problem for the area is the relatively limited illegal hunting and fishing which threatens the rare animal species. Although the greatest part of the Valia Kalda valley is included in the core zone, it has already suffered serious intervention because of the opening, by the D.E.I. (National Organization of Electricity) and the local Forest Service, of a relatively dense road network. All these roads have caused extensive damage to significant habitats and have altered the overall landscape of the area.
Προτεραιότητα προστασίας

Πανίδα και Χλωρίδα

Χαρακτηριστικά Ενδιαιτήματα
Αξιόλογα Φυτά
Abies borisii-regis (Μακεδονικό έλατο)
Aesculus hippocastanum (Πικροκαστανιά)
Allium phthioticum
Alyssum smolikanum
Asperula aristata thessala
Atropa bella-donna
Bornmuellera baldaccii rechingeri
Bornmuellera tymphaea
Campanula hawkinsiana
Centaurea vlachorum
Cerastium vourinense (Κεράστιο του Βούρινου)
Dactylorhiza baumanniana
Dianthus deltoides degenii
Dianthus integer minutiflorus
Fritillaria epirotica
Geum coccineum
Hieracium waldsteinii
Ilex aquifolium (Αρκουδοπούρναρο)
Jovibarba heuffelii
Leptoplax emarginata
Minuartia baldaccii
Orobanche rechingeri
Peucedanum stridii
Pinus heldreichii (Ρόμπολο)
Potentilla geoides geoides
Scorzonera purpurea peristerica
Silene haussknechtii
Soldanella pindicola
Thlaspi epirotum
Thymus stojanovii
Trifolium pilczii
Verbascum epixanthinum
Viola albanica
Viola dukadjinica
Viola epirota
Αξιόλογα Θηλαστικά
Canis lupus (Λύκος)
Capreolus capreolus (Ζαρκάδι)
Felis silvestris morea (Αγριόγατος του Μωριά)
Lepus europaeus carpathous (Λαγός της Καρπάθου)
Lutra lutra (Βίδρα)
Lynx lynx (Λύγκας)
Martes foina (Κουνάβι)
Meles meles (Ασβός)
Myotis blythi (Μακρομυωτίδα)
Nyctalus noctula noctula (Νυχτοβάτης)
Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Νανονυχτερίδα)
Pipistrellus savii (Βουνονυχτερίδα)
Rupicapra rupicapra balcanica (Αγριόγιδο)
Sciurus vulgaris ameliae (Σκίουρος Αμέλιος)
Talpa caeca (Τυφλοσπάλακας)
Ursus arctos (Αρκούδα)
Αξιόλογα Πτηνά
Accipiter gentilis butoides (Διπλοσάινο)
Accipiter nisus nisus (Τσιχλογέρακο)
Aegolius funereus (Ελατόμπουφος)
Alauda arvensis arvensis (Σταρήθρα)
Anthus campestris campestris (Χαμοκελάδα)
Anthus trivialis trivialis (Δενδροκελάδα)
Aquila chrysaetos chrysaetos (Χρυσαητός)
Aquila heliaca heliaca (Βασιλαητός)
Aquila pomarina (Κραυγαητός)
Bubo bubo bubo (Μπούφος)
Buteo buteo buteo (Γερακίνα)
Caprimulgus europaeus (Γυδοβυζάχτρα)
Ciconia nigra (Μαυροπελαργός)
Circaetus gallicus (Φιδαητός)
Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Κοκκοθραύστης)
Columba palumbus palumbus (Φάσσα)
Delichon urbica urbica (Σπιτοχελίδονο)
Dendrocopos leucotos lilfordi (Λευκονώτης)
Dendrocopos medius medius (Μεσοτσικλητάρα)
Dendrocopos syriacus (Βαλκανοτσικλητάρα)
Dryocopus martius martius (Μαυροτσικλητάρα)
Emberiza caesia (Σκουρόβλαχος)
Emberiza citrinella (Χιρλοτσίχλονο)
Emberiza hortulana (Βλάχος)
Erithacus rubecula balcanica (Κοκκινολαίμης των Βαλκανίων)
Falco biarmicus feldeggi (Χρυσογέρακο)
Falco eleonorae (Μαυροπετρίτης)
Fringilla coelebs coelebs (Σπίνος)
Fringilla montifringilla (Χειμωνόσπινος)
Gyps fulvus (Όρνιο)
Hirundo daurica rufula (Δεντροχελίδονο)
Hirundo rustica rustica (Χελιδόνι)
Jynx torquilla torquilla (Στραβολαίμης)
Lanius collurio collurio (Αητόμαχος)
Lanius excubitor excubitor (Διπλοκεφαλάς)
Lullula arborea arborea (Δεντροσταρήθρα)
Monticola saxatilis (Πετροκότσυφας)
Motacilla alba alba (Λευκοσουσουράδα)
Motacilla cinerea (Σταχτοσουσουράδα)
Muscicapa striata neumanni (Σταχτομυγοχάφτης)
Neophron percnopterus (Ασπροπάρης)
Oenanthe oenanthe oenanthe (Σταχτοπετρόκλης)
Otus scops (Γκιώνης)
Pernis apivorus (Σφηκιάρης)
Phoenicurus ochruros (Καρβουνιάρης)
Phoenicurus phoenicurus phoenicurus (Κοκκινονούρης)
Phylloscopus collybita abietinus (Δενδροφυλλοσκόπος των ελάτων)
Picoides tridactylus alpinus (Τριδάκτυλος δρυοκολάπτης)
Picus canus canus (Σταχτοτσικλητάρα)
Prunella modularis (Θαμνοψάλτης)
Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax docilis (Κοκκινοκαλιακούδα)
Regulus regulus (Χρυσοβασιλίσκος)
Streptopelia turtur (Τριγώνι)
Sylvia cantillans albistriata (Κοκκινοτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia communis communis (Θαμνοτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia curruca curruca (Λαλοτσιροβάκος)
Tichodroma muraria muraria (Τοιχοδρόμος)
Turdus philomelos (Τσίχλα)
Turdus torquatus alpestris (Απλική τσίχλα)
Αξιόλογα Αμφίβια / Ερπετά
Anguis fragilis colchicus (Κονάκι)
Bombina variegata scabra (Κιτρινοβομβίνα)
Bufo bufo bufo (Χωματόφρυνος)
Coluber najadum dahlii (Σαΐτα του Νταλ)
Coronella austriaca austriaca (Ασινόφιδο)
Elaphe situla (Σπιτόφιδο)
Lacerta trilineata cariensis (Τρανόσαυρα της Ικαρίας)
Lacerta viridis meridionalis (Πρασινόσαυρα η …)
Natrix tessellata tessellata (Κυβόφιδο)
Podarcis muralis albanica (Αλβανική γουστέρα)
Rana graeca (Ελληνικός Βάτραχος)
Salamandra salamandra salamandra (Σαλαμάνδρα)
Testudo hermanni hermanni (Ονυχοχελώνα)
Triturus alpestris alpestris(t.a. veluchiensis) (Αλπικός Τρίτωνας)
Vipera ammodytes meridionalis (Οχιά)
Vipera ursinii graeca (Οχιά των λιβαδιών)
Αξιόλογα Ψάρια
Αξιόλογα Ασπόνδυλα
Σχόλια για τα είδη