||The site is surrounded by several villages: Anogeia, Zoniana, Livadia, Kalyvos, Agios Mamas, Avdellas, Margarites, Prines, Eleftherna, Vistagi, Fourfouras, Kouroutes, Nithavri, Apodoulou, Platanos, Lochria, Kamares, Vorizia, Zaros, Nyvritos, Gergeri, Agia Varvara, Asites, Krousonas, Loutraki, Gonies.Psiloreitis (Idi Oros) is one of the three major mountain ranges of Crete. The highest peak is 2456m (Timios Stavros). Other high peaks are: Agathia 2,425m, Seli 2354m, Stolistra 2330m, Housamakas 2209m, Alikadam 1927m, Mavri 1981m, Vigla 1917m, Koudouni 1860, Skinakas 1752m, Sitaras 1575m, ect.. Southern slopes are steep. Limestone, dolomite and gneiss are the dominant rocks.Psiloreitis is the «drainage basin» of central Crete. The collected in the system comes from several springs. Zaros, Gergeri, Almyros and Bali are the major of them. Most of the site's area is karstified. Karstic forms comprise canyons, poljes, numerous dolines and many hundreds of caves and potholes including the deepest in Greece (-475m). Deer fossils and Agrimia sceletons (Capra aegagrus cretica-extinct from Psiloreitis some decades ago) have been located in several potholes.The dolines are of special interest; the wet dolines are characterized by scanty vegetation of annuals common in other places but rare in Crete while the dry dolines are characterized by dense vegetation and, in Psiloritis, by the occurence of Polygonum idaeum, specialized in this type of habitat and confined to Psiloritis and Dikti, and of Gagea fibrosa, a strict endemic to the dolines of Psiloritis.Phrygana and maqui shrubs are dominant up to 1600m a.s.l. Groves of prickly-oaks (Quercus coccifera) are spread within the site. Rouvas' prickly-oak grove, above Gergeri, is the largest. Pine groves (Pinus brutia) occur at the south slopes while cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) and maple trees (Acer sempervirens) are scattered up to 1700m a.s.l., only occasionally forming small groves. Above 1700m vegetation is patchy with low bushes of spiny plants. Many taxa that characterise these formations are Cretan endemics (Asperula idaea, Centaurea idaea, etc.). Human activities occur since early Neolithic times. There are several archaeological sites. The ancient town "Zomynthos", the cave Idaion Adron and the cave of Kamares are the most important.