Στοιχεία Τόπου

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Γενικά Στοιχεία

Κατηγορία Τόπου Βιότοπος NATURA
Κωδικός Τόπου GR2550001
Κύριος Χαρακτήρας
Φυσικό Τοπίο
Δομημένο Τοπίο
Διοικητική Υποδιαίρεση Νομός Μεσσηνίας
Συνολική Έκταση (ha) 1241.86
Χερσαία Έκταση (ha) 1241.86
Συνολική Περίμετρος (km) 25.2
Μέγιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 889.0
Ελάχιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 77.0
Ένταξη στο Υπάρχον Θεσμικό Πλαίσιο


Τύπος Τοπίου
Περιγραφή Τόπου The River Nedonas travels through the town of Kalamata. Its mouth lies west of the Kalamata harbour and its catchment area lies at the western side of the north part of Mt. Taygetos. The special feature of this site is a deep narrow gorge, with a length of 9 km, lying between Chani Lagou and the military shooting area just north of Kalamata. This gorge has a SW-NE axis vertically crossing the axes of the mountains the main peaks of which are: Klera (689 m), Goupata (867 m), Amoutsa Korfadi (970 m), Melisto (1237 m), all to the northwest of the gorge, and Koryfi (480 m), Aetos (944 m), Agios Georgios (1104 m), all to the southeast of the gorge. The Kalamata-Sparti national road follows the line of the gorge, which is the only natural pass between the two towns. The typical landscape of this site is formed by deeply carved limestone occurring along the gorge as well as the tributaries, the main ones being: Karveliotiko Rema (just east of km-stone 13), Grias Rema (just to the northwest), Dafnorema (north of Angoudi Rachi) and Skoura Rema (between Goupata and Klera). These black bituminous limestone belong to the Tripolis geotectonic zone and are deeply karstified. Stratigraphically, they are overlain by the Oligocene flysch formation (siltstones, claystones). The substrate of the limestones is phyllitic-quartzitic rock (metamorphic units of the Tripolis zone). These metamorphic rocks outcrop in the Cheromata-Lazarolakka and Alagonia-Artemisia areas, east and north-east of the site. Their relative impermeability ensures a high runoff of water moving towards the Nedonas gorge. Due to the karstification a high percentage of runoff water in the Nedonas riverbed infiltrates through the limestone, thus contributing to the enrichment of the groundwater and maintaining the relatively low runoff towards the river mouth. The geomorphological development of the Nedonas gorge is due to extensive erosion which occurred during the postalpine elevation of the area; erosion was promoted across large NE-SW striking faults. At the same time, zones of weakness in the limestones (due to tectonic stresses) were exposed to erosion, thus promoting rockslides and landslides on the slopes. This led to the temporary obstruction of the water flow in the gorge and to the formation of small lakes behind dams of landslide material. These longitudinal lakes were not perennial; the destruction of the dam during a subsequent flashflood was the rule, but muddy sediments were left behind and formed a locally soft substrate for plants. A striking example of such a process can be observed at the km-stone 16. Extensive rockslides on steep slopes occurred during the Kalamata earthquake of 13.09.1986, which led to a temporary closure of the Kalamata-Sparti national road. With the exception of the tectonically strongly affected zones of steep slopes, the limestones offer stable substrate for plants and trees to establish biotopes. Karstic holes and caves have been observed in many places along the gorge. These indicate older levels of groundwater circulation as well as positions of paleo-springs, before the deepening of the gorge to its present level. These holes are very important habitats for many wild animals (bats, foxes, hares, birds etc.) according to the location, the relative accessibility of water, and the degree of safety which they offer to the respective animals. The maquis vegetation belonging to the Oleo-Ceratonion zone is highly developed and of very good quality and biodiversity. This is due to the following factors:- The orientation of the Nedonas gorge ensures low insolation at least for the northwest exposed sides, thus preventing an environment too dry for plants growth. This has a positive effect on the biomass production of the maquis, which thrives under favourable conditions.- As a result of the above factor, fires which could otherwise destroy extended areas of woodland in the open mountainous area, even at higher altitudes, are less effective in the relatively humid microclimate of the gorge. So, the survival of an ecosystem established in the gorge is more probable. This also seems to be a positive factor for the animals which may remain undisturbed in the gorge without the danger of fire.- As the gorge connects the lowland of the Kalamata area with the highland of Mt. Taygetos, this ensures a high probability of species mobility (especially of animals searching for food, water, security and a new territory). Plant seeds can also be easily transported through the gorge by means of animals or floods. - Since the largest part of the gorge itself is not easily accessible to man, due to steep topography and low agricultural value, a further advantage is therefore offered to the flora and fauna of the gorge. The only accessible area of the gorge is near to the km-stone 16, where olive trees have been planted and the shepherds bring their animals (goats and sheep) for watering. The rough geomorphology of the area, does not permit the establishment of villages. All residences are distributed in places outside the Nedon as gorge. Scattered smaller agricultural and pastural buildings and homes, are met mainly on the southern flank of the gorge, on the small plateaus above it. The ecosystem seems to be in an equilibrium with grazing animals. This is due to the density of natural maquis vegetation, the inaccessibility of most localities, and high biomass production as described above. As far as the Nedonas Plain and the southwestern end of the gorge are concerned, the natural ecosystem is almost totally absent due to urbanization in the town of Kalamata. The straightening and the concrete cover of the riverbed and riversides, has destroyed all natural vegetation, which has been replaced with artificially planted and irrigated trees. Ironically these trees are irrigated with water pumped from boreholes just next to the riversides. There is also a limestone quarry at the southwestern end of the gorge, just beyond the military shooting site. However, these factors do not minimize the great aesthetic value and scientific importance of the Nedonas gorge.
Κατάσταση Τόπου
Εγκατάλειψη οικισμών
Τάση Κατάστασης Τόπου
Ιστορία και εξέλιξη του τόπου
Σημεία με καλή Θέα
Μονοπάτια Περίπατοι


Οικολογική Αξία
Κοινωνικοοικονομική/πολιτιστική Αξία
Αισθητική Αξία
Σχόλιο για τις αξίες Our on-site investigation showed from the beginning that this site is very important, even when compared to the famous Langada gorge at the eastern part of the Kalamata-Sparti pass. Langada is the natural continuation of the Nedonas-Langada connection between Kalamata and Sparti.The importance of the site is due to following factors:- A very impressive landscape- High quality of the maquis vegetation, consisting of Quercus coccifera, Q. ilex, Pistacia lentiscus, Olea europaea, Ceratonia siliqua, Arbutus unedo, A. adrachne, Phllyrea media, Acer creticum, Laurus nobilis, etc.- Development of pure riverside vegetation (Platanus orientalis, Salix sp. etc.) along the riversides.- Water runoff occurring for at least several months, especially in the northeastern part of the gorge.- The existence of rare, endemic and interesting plants from a phytogeographical point of view. Thus from the plants cited in section 3.3 Scilla messeniaca is endemic to Peloponnisos, characterised as "I" by the WCMC Plants Database as well as by the IUCN R.D.B and protected by the Greek legislation (Presidential Decree 67/1981).Of the plants marked with motivation D, Teucrium flavum is a plant of the Mediterranean region.- This gorge is a real natural museum.A rich vertebrate fauna lives in this site including endemic, rare and threatened animals. From a faunistic point of view, some species found in this site are mentioned in the lists of Annex II of the Directive 92/43/EEC (section 3.2). Several amphibian, reptilian and mammalian taxa known to occur in this site are considered as Other Important. Among them, the lizards Lacerta graeca and Podarcis peloponnesiaca are endemic to Greece (motivation B).All the taxa of section 3.3 are marked by motivation C because they are mentioned in the Bern Convention. Excepting Ablepharus kitaibelii, Ophisaurus apodus, Typhlops vermicularis, Vipera ammodytes and Martes foina, all taxa are also protected by the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981, and so they are characterized by motivation D. Moreover, Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea, Ablepharus kitaibelii and Elaphe longissima, fall under the same motivation since they are listed in the CORINE-Biotopes handbook. Similarly, the D motivation is additionally given to Coluber gemonensis, because it is Balkan endemic, and to Ophiomorus punctatissimus since it occurs in Greece only in the southern mainland and Peloponnisos is the westernmost part of its whole distribution range.


Σχόλιο για τις απειλές-διαταραχές
Τρωτότητα The Nedonas gorge maquis ecosystem comprises a high number of plant species. This fact in an important factor for its stability. With the exception of rockslides, mainly occurring during earthquakes, the slopes are stable. Water ensures the survival of the riverside trees. The density of the maquis vegetation gives additional security to the animals living in the area.The ecological equilibrium could be threatened by following situations:- Fire: A possibility, especially during a long period of drought.- Water pollution: There is a certain degree of pollution originating from the villages of the mountainous area northeast of the site. It is due to olive oil processing activities and is especially concentrated between the months of November and February. The first 2-5 km of the gorge may also be affected by pollutants due to unprocessed sewage water from the villages of Nedousa, Alagonia and Artemisia.- Pollution could take place by illegal dumping of hazardous waste in the gorge, since the route of the national road makes this possible. For the moment, only household waste is scattered at some points along the roadside verges.- Grazing: For the moment, overgrazing is prevented in the area of the gorge because the vegetation present there is so dense. However, shepherds may see this area as a potential food reserve for their goats in the event of a fire in their usual grazing sites around the gorge.- The limestone quarry at the southwest end of the gorge ruins the landscape and raises dust and noise problems.- Waste dumping at the river banks used as a landfill site just southwest of the quarry, is an additional negative factor. In spite of this, several trees still survive in this area.
Προτεραιότητα προστασίας

Πανίδα και Χλωρίδα

Χαρακτηριστικά Ενδιαιτήματα
Αξιόλογα Φυτά
Barlia robertiana
Scilla messeniaca
Teucrium flavum flavum (Τεύκριο το κίτρινο)
Αξιόλογα Θηλαστικά
Martes foina (Κουνάβι)
Mustela nivalis galinthias (Νυφίτσα)
Rhinolophus blasii (Ρινόλοφος του Μπλάζιους)
Αξιόλογα Πτηνά
Αξιόλογα Αμφίβια / Ερπετά
Ablepharus kitaibelii fabichi (Αβλέφαρος)
Bufo bufo bufo (Χωματόφρυνος)
Bufo viridis viridis (Πρασινόφρυνος)
Coluber gemonensis gemonensis
Elaphe longissima longissima (Γιατρόφιδο)
Elaphe quatuorlineata quatuorlineata (Λαφίτης)
Hyla arborea arborea (Δεντροβάτραχος)
Lacerta graeca (Γραικόσαυρα)
Lacerta trilineata cariensis (Τρανόσαυρα της Ικαρίας)
Malpolon monspessulanus insignitus (Σαπίτης)
Natrix natrix persa (Ντρόφιδο το Περσικό)
Ophiomorus punctatissimus (Οφιόμορος)
Ophisaurus apodus thracius (Τυφλίτης)
Podarcis peloponnesiaca lais (Γουστέρα της Βόρειας Πελοποννήσου)
Rana graeca (Ελληνικός Βάτραχος)
Telescopus fallax fallax (Αγιόφιδο)
Testudo hermanni hermanni (Ονυχοχελώνα)
Testudo marginata (Κρασπεδωτή χελώνα)
Typhlops vermicularis (Τυφλίνος)
Vipera ammodytes meridionalis (Οχιά)
Αξιόλογα Ψάρια
Αξιόλογα Ασπόνδυλα
Σχόλια για τα είδη