NatureBank - Βιότοπος NATURA - ETHNIKOS DRYMOS SAMARIAS - FARANGI TRYPITIS - PSILAFI - KOUSTOGERAKO

Στοιχεία Τόπου

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Κτηματολόγιο Α.Ε.

Γενικά Στοιχεία

Όνομα ETHNIKOS DRYMOS SAMARIAS - FARANGI TRYPITIS - PSILAFI - KOUSTOGERAKO
Κατηγορία Τόπου Βιότοπος NATURA
Κωδικός Τόπου GR4340014
Κύριος Χαρακτήρας
Βιότοπος
Φυσικό Τοπίο
Δομημένο Τοπίο
Διοικητική Υποδιαίρεση Νομός Χανίων
Δήμος-Κοινότητα
Συνολική Έκταση (ha) 13979.76
Χερσαία Έκταση (ha) 13979.76
Συνολική Περίμετρος (km) 55.5
Μέγιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 2105.0
Ελάχιστο Υψόμετρο (m)
Ένταξη στο Υπάρχον Θεσμικό Πλαίσιο

Χαρακτηριστικά

Τύπος Τοπίου
Κλίμα
Γεωλογία
Περιγραφή Τόπου Geology: The main geological formations composing the geological substrate of the National Park of Samaria Gorge are three: platy crystalline limestones, compact limestones and dolomites, slope debris and fansMain geomorphological and landscape features: The core of the site consists of the approximately 18km long Samaria gorge, directed from the North to the South. The gorge has a unique geomorphology which is characterized by an extremely narrow path, not wider than 3 - 4 m, and by nearly vertical inclines, 300 - 400 m high. The karstic Samaria ravine is of the largest coastal ravines in the Balcans.Further more the site is characterized by:1. A number of secondary ravines beginning from the peaks of Volakias and Avlimonokou and flowing in to the main gorge (in its torrent)2. An impressive altitudinal variation; within 6.5 km the altitude increases from nearly zero to more than 2,100 m a.s.l. and there are 4 peaks exceeding 2,000 m a.s.l.3. Several geological faults which have resulted in characteristic crags reaching up to 300 - 400 m high.4. Characteristic geomorphological elements of the karstic landscape of Crete such as the limestone dolines, caves (most of them being unexplored), formations of slope debris and fans, and several springs.5. Areas with abandoned terraces, a significant human made element of the landscape.The Pinus brutia stands are generally found in the lower elevation zone (0 - 600 m a.s.l. approximately); The formations of Pistacio - Ceratonion do not exceed 200 m a.s.l.; the mixed P. brutia - Cupressus sempervirens stands dominate the altitude zone from 500 - 1,000 m a.s.l. approx. and the pure Cupressus sempervirens stands usually exist between 900 - 1,800 m a.s.l. Above this altitude, important formations of mixed or pure, stands or clusters of C. sempervirens, Quercus coccifera, Acer sempervirens and Zelcova abeticea are quite common, not exceeding 1,600 m a.s.l. At higher altitudes there are formation characterized by Astragalus creticus and Astragalus angustifolius. NOTES 1) The pure Acer sempervirens formations cover a small part of the site. This habitat type is not included in Annex I and corresponds to CORINE code 32.1A.2) The largest area of the site is covered by a mixed forest of pine and cypress.
Κατάσταση Τόπου
Εγκατάλειψη οικισμών
Τάση Κατάστασης Τόπου
Ιστορία και εξέλιξη του τόπου
Σημεία με καλή Θέα
Μονοπάτια Περίπατοι

Αξίες

Οικολογική Αξία
Κοινωνικοοικονομική/πολιτιστική Αξία
Αισθητική Αξία
Σχόλιο για τις αξίες This is an important site for breeding and passage raptors, and for species characteristic of scrub and montane habitats. Species of concern include: Gypaetus barbatus, Aquila chrysaetos, Falco peregrinus and Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax. Samaria gorge is the oldest National Park in Greece. The complexity and the beauty of the site are unique; proof of this fact are the thousands of visitors who come to cross it (circa 150,000 visitors annualy).The National Park is relatively well managed. Undisturbed for a long period, it contains very well balanced and highly diverse plant and animal communities. The National Park is practically the only area where grazing, which is one of the major causes of negative impacts on habitats elsewhere, is forbidden. Field research is necessary in order to document the indications we have about Samaria's gorge importance.OTHER IMPORTANT SPECIES WITH MOTIVATION DPlants: The endemic species Eryngium ternatum, Helichrysum heldreichii, Sanguisorba cretica and Teucrium cuneifoliumare protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and included in the IUCN list in the category of threatened plants and in the European Red Book of Globally threatened plants characterized as "rare". Animals: Mustela nivalis is protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and by the Bern Convention.. Glis glis argenteus and Meles meles arcalus are included in the National Red Data Book and are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and by the Bern Convention. Martes foina is protected by the Bern Convention.All the reptiles and the amphibian Bufo viridis are protected by the Bern Convention. Bufo viridis, Chalcides occelatus, Lacerta thrineata polylepidota and Podarkis erhardii leukaorii are, also, included in the Directive 92/43/EEC as species of community interest. Hemidactylus turcicus is protected by the Presidential Decree 67/81.

Κίνδυνοι

Απειλές/διαταραχές
Σχόλιο για τις απειλές-διαταραχές
Τρωτότητα The construction of new roads is a major threat. There are two other major potential threats for the site:1) Pressure from heavy tourism activities 2) Fire: The possibility of wild and uncontrolled fires is a continuous threat for the extremely flammable vegetation of the area moreover since it will be difficult to put out because of the complex geomorphology of the area. In addition, there is a large number of, actually uncontrolled, pastoral fires burning and continuously degrading the phrygana communities. These fires, influence almost the whole region of the White Mountains and several locations around the National Park.Other activities and impacts on the site are: 3) Genetic pollution: Genetic pollution is one of the major problems concerning the site; it refers to the cross breeding of the Capra aigagrus cretica with domestic goats which have turned wild, a process for which very little is known.4) Hunting: Illegal hunting and over - hunting in the area surrounding the National Park. Of special note is the impacts on Capra aigagrus cretica and Aqcuila chrysaetos.5) Introduction of disease: The probability of serious damage or destruction of the Cupressus sempervirens woodlands by the fungi Corineum cardinale is one of the major threats on the site. Although the presence of the disease in natural populations of this tree species from the White Mountains is recorded, there is a complete absence of the absolutely essential and urgent knowledge regarding the state and stage of the disease's spread at the present.There are a few publications referring to or studying the ability of the area's ecosystems to rehabilitate after the cassation of destructive human activities or after abandonment of traditional farming on terraces. Accompanying this secondary succession process, is the invasion of (the pioneer species) Pinus in degraded areas and the temporal increase of its distribution. On the other hand, the consequences of this, on the population dynamics of the endemic plant species are have not been adequately studied yet.There is an absolute need of an efficient, strict and concrete management policy.
Προτεραιότητα προστασίας

Πανίδα και Χλωρίδα

Χαρακτηριστικά Ενδιαιτήματα
Αξιόλογα Φυτά
Bupleurum kakiskalae
Centaurea argentea
Centaurea baldaccii
Centaurea idaea
Cephalanthera cucullata
Crocus sieberi sieberi
Draba cretica
Hypericum trichocaulon
Inula candida candida
Phlomis lanata
Ricotia cretica
Verbascum arcturus
Viola fragrans
Zelkova abelicea (Αμπελιτσιά)
Αξιόλογα Θηλαστικά
Capra aegagrus (Αγριοκάτσικο)
Eptesicus serotinus (Τρανονυχτερίδα)
Glis glis argenteus (Δασομυωξός)
Martes foina (Κουνάβι)
Meles meles (Ασβός)
Mustela nivalis galinthias (Νυφίτσα)
Rhinolophus hipposideros (Μικρορινόλοφος)
Αξιόλογα Πτηνά
Accipiter nisus nisus (Τσιχλογέρακο)
Alauda arvensis arvensis (Σταρήθρα)
Alcedo atthis (Αλκυόνα)
Anthus campestris campestris (Χαμοκελάδα)
Anthus pratensis pratensis (Λιβαδοκελάδα)
Anthus spinoletta littoralis (Νεροκελάδα …)
Anthus trivialis trivialis (Δενδροκελάδα)
Apus apus apus (Σταχτάρα)
Apus melba melba (Σκεπαρνάς)
Apus pallidus illyricus (Ωχροσταχτάρα)
Aquila chrysaetos chrysaetos (Χρυσαητός)
Ardea cinerea (Σταχτοτσικνιάς)
Buteo buteo buteo (Γερακίνα)
Buteo rufinus rufinus (Αητογερακίνα)
Calandrella brachydactyla (Μικρογαλιάντρα)
Calonectris diomedea (Αρτέμης)
Caprimulgus europaeus (Γυδοβυζάχτρα)
Carduelis spinus (Λούγαρο)
Circaetus gallicus (Φιδαητός)
Circus aeruginosus (Καλαμόκιρκος)
Circus macrourus (Στεπόκιρκος)
Columba oenas oenas (Φασσοπερίστερο)
Columba palumbus palumbus (Φάσσα)
Cuculus canorus (Κούκος)
Delichon urbica urbica (Σπιτοχελίδονο)
Egretta garzetta (Λευκοτσικνιάς)
Emberiza hortulana (Βλάχος)
Erithacus rubecula balcanica (Κοκκινολαίμης των Βαλκανίων)
Falco eleonorae (Μαυροπετρίτης)
Falco peregrinus brookei (Πετρίτης)
Falco subbuteo (Δεντρογέρακο)
Falco vespertinus (Μαυροκιρκίνεζο)
Ficedula albicollis (Κρικομυγοχάφτης)
Ficedula hypoleuca (Μαυρομυγοχάφτης)
Fringilla coelebs coelebs (Σπίνος)
Gypaetus barbatus aureus (Γυπαητός)
Gyps fulvus (Όρνιο)
Hieraaetus fasciatus (Σπιζαητός)
Hieraaetus pennatus (Σταυραητός)
Hippolais icterina (Κιτρινοστριτσίδα)
Hippolais pallida elaeica (Ωχροστριτσίδα)
Hirundo daurica rufula (Δεντροχελίδονο)
Hirundo rustica rustica (Χελιδόνι)
Lanius collurio collurio (Αητόμαχος)
Lanius minor (Γαϊδουροκεφαλάς)
Lanius senator senator (Κοκκινοκέφαλος)
Lullula arborea arborea (Δεντροσταρήθρα)
Luscinia megarhynchos (Αηδόνι)
Merops apiaster (Μελισσοφάγος)
Milvus migrans aegypticus (Τσίφτης Αιγυπτιακός)
Motacilla alba alba (Λευκοσουσουράδα)
Motacilla cinerea (Σταχτοσουσουράδα)
Motacilla flava beema (Κιτρινοσουσουράδα)
Muscicapa striata neumanni (Σταχτομυγοχάφτης)
Neophron percnopterus (Ασπροπάρης)
Oenanthe hispanica (Ασπροκώλα)
Oenanthe oenanthe oenanthe (Σταχτοπετρόκλης)
Oriolus oriolus oriolus (Συκοφάγος)
Otus scops (Γκιώνης)
Pernis apivorus (Σφηκιάρης)
Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Θαλασσοκόρακας)
Phoenicurus ochruros (Καρβουνιάρης)
Phoenicurus phoenicurus phoenicurus (Κοκκινονούρης)
Phylloscopus collybita abietinus (Δενδροφυλλοσκόπος των ελάτων)
Phylloscopus sibilatrix (Δασοφυλλοσκόπος)
Phylloscopus trochilus acredula (Θαμνοφυλλοσκόπος)
Prunella modularis (Θαμνοψάλτης)
Puffinus puffinus puffinus (Μύχος)
Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax docilis (Κοκκινοκαλιακούδα)
Regulus regulus (Χρυσοβασιλίσκος)
Streptopelia turtur (Τριγώνι)
Sturnus vulgaris tauricus (Ψαρόνι του Ταύρου)
Sylvia atricapilla (Μαυροσκούφης)
Sylvia borin borin (Κηποτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia cantillans albistriata (Κοκκινοτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia communis communis (Θαμνοτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia hortensis crassirostris (Δεντροτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia rueppelli (Μουστακοτσιροβάκος)
Turdus philomelos (Τσίχλα)
Upupa epops epops (Τσαλαπετεινός)
Αξιόλογα Αμφίβια / Ερπετά
Bufo viridis viridis (Πρασινόφρυνος)
Chalcides ocellatus ocellatus (Λιακόνι)
Coluber gemonensis gemonensis
Elaphe situla (Σπιτόφιδο)
Hemidactylus turcicus turcicus (Σαμιαμίδι)
Podarcis erhardii amorgensis (Σιλιβούτι της Αμοργού)
Αξιόλογα Ψάρια
Αξιόλογα Ασπόνδυλα
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