NatureBank - Βιότοπος NATURA - LEFKA ORI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI

Στοιχεία Τόπου

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Κτηματολόγιο Α.Ε.

Γενικά Στοιχεία

Όνομα LEFKA ORI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI
Κατηγορία Τόπου Βιότοπος NATURA
Κωδικός Τόπου GR4340008
Κύριος Χαρακτήρας
Βιότοπος
Φυσικό Τοπίο
Δομημένο Τοπίο
Διοικητική Υποδιαίρεση Νομός Χανίων
Δήμος-Κοινότητα
Συνολική Έκταση (ha) 53363.64
Χερσαία Έκταση (ha) 51893.21
Συνολική Περίμετρος (km) 124.6
Μέγιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 2448.0
Ελάχιστο Υψόμετρο (m)
Ένταξη στο Υπάρχον Θεσμικό Πλαίσιο

Χαρακτηριστικά

Τύπος Τοπίου
Κλίμα
Γεωλογία
Περιγραφή Τόπου The site has a very variable geomorphological profile. There are 50 summits over 2000 m It is characterized by a number of gorges (approximately 20) of which the gorge of Samaria is the most characteristic. There is also a great number of ravines, caves, dolines, potholes, poljes, and plateaus forming a sequence of different habitats from 0 m to 2453 m.The dolines are of special interest; the wet dolines are characterized by scanty vegetation of annuals common in other places but rare in Crete while the dry dolines are characterized by dense vegetation and, in Lefka Ori, by the occurence of Hypericum kelleri, specialized in this type of habitat and endemic to the Cretan mountains. The largest cypress forest in Crete (and one of the last remaining) as well as extended pine forests are found at the borders of the site. A small percentage of the area is covered by tall kermes oak formations. The coastal part is characterized by calcareous escrapments. The tallest ones (200 to 500 m), termed as plurizonal megacliffs, have several climatic and vegetation belts. The mosaic vegetation is intensified by the existence of karstic ravines that support a luxuriant and frutescent cliff vegetation (karst rockbush). Samaria ravine is the largest coastal ravine of the Balkans with a depth of more than 500 m. The marine part, is characterized by Posidonia beds, reefs and sea caves. Very few local communities, mostly coastal, and a very sparce network of secondary roads at the margins of the site are the only visible signs of human presence at the area. As a general remark we must stress the fact that the available Annex I habitat types are insufficient and/or inadequate for the proper description of the site.
Κατάσταση Τόπου
Εγκατάλειψη οικισμών
Τάση Κατάστασης Τόπου
Ιστορία και εξέλιξη του τόπου
Σημεία με καλή Θέα
Μονοπάτια Περίπατοι

Αξίες

Οικολογική Αξία
Κοινωνικοοικονομική/πολιτιστική Αξία
Αισθητική Αξία
Σχόλιο για τις αξίες The described site is of utmost importance. It includes a great variety of very important habitats that host a great number of species of flora and fauna, a large proportion of which are endemics or even stenoendemics, restricted to the site. Most characteristic and indicative of the site's quality is the gorge of Samaria, that, in addition to being a Special Protection Area (SPA) for birds, it has been declared National Park since 1962, has been designated as a Biosphere reserve, and has also been awarded the European Diploma of the Council of Europe; besides, it is protected by the Barcelona Convention. An essential element of the site's importance, coupling its potential for bioversity, is that it is a vast area with low human impact and it includes many important biotic and non-biotic natural elements, whose true value we are not yet fully aware of. The great morhpological complexity combined with the above give a high aesthetic result. The need of a global management plan is urgent if the site's invaluable elements are to be preserved. A more analytical description and demonstration of the importance of the the fauna and flora, proving the site's value for biodiversity, is given below: 1) Fauna: All the molluscs included in section 3.3., except Helix cincta, Monaca rothi and Vitrea clessini, are endemic to Crete. The invertebrates Duvalius sbordonii, Niphargobates lefkodemonaki, Serradium sbordonii, Lephtyphanthes lindbergi, and Trichoniscus lindbergi are only found in caves and they are endemics to Crete, the first two being endemics to one single cave each. Regarding the mammals, the site shelters some Annex II species and some other important and protected species. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum ssp. creticum, included in section 3.2.c. as Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum, is a subspecies endemic to Crete. Capra aegagrus cretica (included in section 3.2.c. as C. aegagrus), is also an endemic subspecies. It must be noted that according to Bate (1905), all Cretan mammals are either endemic species or subspecies, but these data are under question. The species Glis glis, Felis sylvestris, and Eptesius serotinus are protected by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of the Wild Flora and Fauna. Finally, the fauna also includes amphibians and reptiles protected by the Bern Convention. The mammal Crocidura zimmermani and the reptile Podarcis erhardi leukaorii are Cretan endemics.2) Flora: Of the species included in section 3.3 (other important species) many are endemic, some of them endemic to the site or to the Cretan area. Besides the Annex II species, the presence of Ranunculus radinotrichus, should also be noted since is an endangered species to be included in the National Red Data Book (currently under edition). Finally, concerning vegetation, the importance of the kermes oak formations should be noted as the site is one of the three locations in Crete with extended arborescent kermes oak communities and as a biotope sustaining a specialized invertebrate fauna, not yet sufficiently known.NOTES: In section 3.2.c., Capra aegagrus stands for Capra aegagrus cretica.OTHER IMPORTANT SPECIES WITH MOTIVATION D.Plants:The endemic species Alyssum fragillimum, Alyssum sphacioticum, Anchusa cespitosa, Anthemis abrotanifolia, Arenaria fragilimma, Asplenium creticum, Biarum davisii ssp. davisii, Bolanthus creutzburgi, Campanula jaquinii, Centaurea baldacii, Centaurea lancifolia, Centaurea redempta, Cirsium morinifolium, Clematis elisabethae-carolae, Crepis auriculifolia, Crepis sibthorpiana, Corydalis rutifolia ssp. uniflora, Cuscuta atrans, Cynoglossum sphakioticum, Eryngium ternatum, Euphorbia-sultan-hasei, Ferulago thyrsiflora, Helichrysum heldreichi, Hypochoeris tenuiflora, Onobrychis sphaciotica, Ononis verae, Petrorhagia dianthoides, Prunella cretensis, Sanguisorba cretica, Satureja cretica, Scabiosa albocincta, Senecio fruticulosus, Sesleria doerfleri, Silene pinetorum, Teucrium cuneifolium, Thlaspi zaffrani, Viola cretica, are protected by the Presidential Decree 67/81 and are included in the IUCN Red Data List in the category of threatened plants at the level of Greece. C. lancifolia is a vulnerable species also protected by the Bern Convention and included in Annex IV of the Directive 92/43/EEC.The endemic species: Viola fragans, Centranthus sieberi, Scilla nana and Asperula idaea are protected by the Presidential Decree 67/81. Colchicum macrophyllum, Tulipa saxatilis, are protected by the Presidential Decree 67/81. Lamyropsis cynaroides (rare) is included in the IUCN Red Data List in the category of threatened plants at the level of Greece. Cotoneaster nummularia (vulnerable), Datisca cannabina (vulnerable), Ranunculus creticus (rare), Paracaryum lithospermifolium ssp. cariense (rare) are protected by the Presidential Decree 67/81 and are included in the IUCN Red Data List in the category of threatened plants at the level of Greece.The following Mediterranean species have been considered important:Allium callimischon ssp. haemostictum occurs in only in Crete and SW Turkey; Arum creticum and Satureja spinosa are species occurring in Crete, the East Aegean and SW Turkey; Festuca polita occurs in Greece and SW Turkey; Brassica cretica ssp. cretica is a chasmophyte with distribution in Peloponnisos and Crete and only in Lebanon out of Greece; Viola rauliniana W & C Crete and in Cyprus; Lithodora hispidula ssp. hispidula is endemic to East Aegean Islands, Crete and W Turkey. Myosotis refracta ssp. paucipilosa is a species scattered in Greece (Lefka Ori, Nafpaktos, Boumistos, Samos) and S Anatolia. Thymus leucotrichus is a species of the mountains of Greece and Anatolia.Amelanchier ovalis ssp. cretica occurs only in Sicily out of Greece; Campanula trichocalycina (=Asyneuma trichocalycinum) is a rather rare plant with scattered localities in Greece (distribution Balkan peninsula, Sicily, Italy). Lamium garganicum ssp. striatum is a balkan endemic. Valantia aprica is a balkan endemic (Greece, Albania).Animals: The species Mustela nivalis, Erinaceus concolor nesiotes, Crocidura suaveolens, Suncus etruscus, Coluber gemonensis, Cyrtodactylus kotschyi bartoni, Hemidactylus turcicus are protected by the Presidential Decree 67/81. The species Glis glis is included in the Directive 92/43/EEC as species of community interest. The species Felis sylvestris, Eptesius serotinus, Hyla arborea cretensis, Bufo viridis, Chalcides occelatus, Lacerta trilineata, Podarcis erhardii are protected by the Presidential Decree 67/81 and are included in the Directive 92/43/EEC as species of community interest. The invertebrate Helix cincta is a relist element of the Cretan fauna with very restricted, vulnerable populations. Its presence is very important both for zoogeographical research and as an element of biodiversity.

Κίνδυνοι

Απειλές/διαταραχές
Σχόλιο για τις απειλές-διαταραχές
Τρωτότητα The major human impact on the site is overgrazing, which in some cases is accompanied by fire. Poaching, lumbering and fishing by dynamite at the coasts are the other most significant human activities. During the last years the activities mentioned have increased because of illegal road construction.
Προτεραιότητα προστασίας

Πανίδα και Χλωρίδα

Χαρακτηριστικά Ενδιαιτήματα
Αξιόλογα Φυτά
Allium callimischon haemostictum
Allium dilatatum
Allium rubrovittatum
Alyssum fragillimum
Alyssum sphacioticum
Amelanchier ovalis cretica (Αμελάνχιερ το κρητικό)
Anchusa cespitosa
Arenaria fragillima
Arenaria guicciardii (Αρενέρια του Γκουϊτσιάρντι)
Arum creticum
Arum idaeum
Asperula rigida (Ασπέρουλα η τραχεία)
Barlia robertiana
Bolanthus creutzburgii
Brachypodium sylvaticum creticum
Bupleurum kakiskalae
Centaurea argentea
Centaurea baldaccii
Centaurea idaea
Cephalanthera cucullata
Cephalaria squamiflora squamiflora (Κεφαλάρια η λεπιδανθής)
Clematis elisabethae-carolae (Αγράμπελη της Ελισάβετ-Καρόλας)
Colchicum cretense
Colchicum macrophyllum
Cotoneaster nummularia (Κοτονήαστρο το νομισματικό)
Crepis auriculifolia
Crepis sibthorpiana
Crepis tybakiensis
Crocus sieberi sieberi
Cyclamen creticum
Cynoglossum sphacioticum
Daphne jasminea (Δαφνούλα ιασμινοειδής)
Datisca cannabina
Dianthus juniperinus heldreichii
Dianthus juniperinus juniperinus
Dianthus sphacioticus
Draba cretica
Ebenus cretica (Έβενος ο κρητικός)
Erysimum candicum candicum
Erysimum mutabile
Erysimum raulinii
Galium samothracicum
Gypsophila nana
Hypericum aciferum (Υπερικό το ακιδοφόρο)
Hypericum kelleri
Hypericum trichocaulon
Inula candida candida
Myosotis solange
Nepeta sphaciotica
Odontites linkii
Onobrychis sphaciotica
Orchis prisca
Origanum dictamnus
Petromarula pinnata
Phlomis lanata
Prunella cretensis
Ranunculus creticus
Ranunculus radinotrichus
Ricotia cretica
Scabiosa albocincta (Σκαμπιόζα η λευκόστικτη)
Scabiosa sphaciotica
Scutellaria hirta
Scutellaria sieberi
Sedum creticum creticum (Σέδο το κρητικό)
Sedum praesidis
Senecio fruticulosus
Silene variegata
Silene vulgaris angustifolia
Stachys spinosa
Teucrium alpestre alpestre (Τεύκριο το αλπικό)
Thlaspi creticum
Thymus leucotrichus leucotrichus
Tulipa cretica
Tulipa saxatilis
Valeriana asarifolia
Verbascum arcturus
Verbascum spinosum (Βερμπάσκο το ακανθώδες)
Viola cretica cretica
Viola fragrans
Viola rauliniana
Zelkova abelicea (Αμπελιτσιά)
Αξιόλογα Θηλαστικά
Capra aegagrus (Αγριοκάτσικο)
Crocidura suaveolens balcanica (Κηπομυγαλή των Βαλκανίων)
Eptesicus serotinus (Τρανονυχτερίδα)
Felis silvestris morea (Αγριόγατος του Μωριά)
Glis glis argenteus (Δασομυωξός)
Martes foina (Κουνάβι)
Meles meles (Ασβός)
Monachus monachus (Μεσογειακή φώκια)
Mustela nivalis galinthias (Νυφίτσα)
Myotis emarginatus (Πυρρομυωτίδα)
Rhinolophus hipposideros (Μικρορινόλοφος)
Suncus etruscus (Ετρουσκομυγαλή)
Αξιόλογα Πτηνά
Acrocephalus melanopogon (Μουστακοποταμίδα)
Alauda arvensis arvensis (Σταρήθρα)
Alcedo atthis (Αλκυόνα)
Anthus campestris campestris (Χαμοκελάδα)
Anthus pratensis pratensis (Λιβαδοκελάδα)
Anthus spinoletta littoralis (Νεροκελάδα …)
Anthus trivialis trivialis (Δενδροκελάδα)
Apus apus apus (Σταχτάρα)
Apus melba melba (Σκεπαρνάς)
Apus pallidus illyricus (Ωχροσταχτάρα)
Aquila chrysaetos chrysaetos (Χρυσαητός)
Ardea cinerea (Σταχτοτσικνιάς)
Buteo buteo buteo (Γερακίνα)
Buteo rufinus rufinus (Αητογερακίνα)
Calandrella brachydactyla (Μικρογαλιάντρα)
Calonectris diomedea (Αρτέμης)
Caprimulgus europaeus (Γυδοβυζάχτρα)
Carduelis spinus (Λούγαρο)
Circaetus gallicus (Φιδαητός)
Circus aeruginosus (Καλαμόκιρκος)
Circus macrourus (Στεπόκιρκος)
Columba oenas oenas (Φασσοπερίστερο)
Columba palumbus palumbus (Φάσσα)
Cuculus canorus (Κούκος)
Delichon urbica urbica (Σπιτοχελίδονο)
Emberiza hortulana (Βλάχος)
Erithacus rubecula balcanica (Κοκκινολαίμης των Βαλκανίων)
Falco eleonorae (Μαυροπετρίτης)
Falco peregrinus brookei (Πετρίτης)
Falco subbuteo (Δεντρογέρακο)
Falco vespertinus (Μαυροκιρκίνεζο)
Ficedula albicollis (Κρικομυγοχάφτης)
Ficedula hypoleuca (Μαυρομυγοχάφτης)
Fringilla coelebs coelebs (Σπίνος)
Gavia arctica arctica (Λαμπροβούτι)
Gypaetus barbatus aureus (Γυπαητός)
Gyps fulvus (Όρνιο)
Hieraaetus fasciatus (Σπιζαητός)
Hieraaetus pennatus (Σταυραητός)
Hippolais icterina (Κιτρινοστριτσίδα)
Hippolais pallida elaeica (Ωχροστριτσίδα)
Hirundo daurica rufula (Δεντροχελίδονο)
Hirundo rustica rustica (Χελιδόνι)
Lanius collurio collurio (Αητόμαχος)
Lanius minor (Γαϊδουροκεφαλάς)
Lanius senator senator (Κοκκινοκέφαλος)
Lullula arborea arborea (Δεντροσταρήθρα)
Luscinia megarhynchos (Αηδόνι)
Merops apiaster (Μελισσοφάγος)
Milvus migrans aegypticus (Τσίφτης Αιγυπτιακός)
Monticola saxatilis (Πετροκότσυφας)
Motacilla alba alba (Λευκοσουσουράδα)
Motacilla cinerea (Σταχτοσουσουράδα)
Motacilla flava beema (Κιτρινοσουσουράδα)
Muscicapa striata neumanni (Σταχτομυγοχάφτης)
Neophron percnopterus (Ασπροπάρης)
Oenanthe hispanica (Ασπροκώλα)
Oenanthe oenanthe oenanthe (Σταχτοπετρόκλης)
Oriolus oriolus oriolus (Συκοφάγος)
Otus scops (Γκιώνης)
Pernis apivorus (Σφηκιάρης)
Phoenicurus ochruros (Καρβουνιάρης)
Phoenicurus phoenicurus phoenicurus (Κοκκινονούρης)
Phylloscopus collybita abietinus (Δενδροφυλλοσκόπος των ελάτων)
Phylloscopus sibilatrix (Δασοφυλλοσκόπος)
Phylloscopus trochilus acredula (Θαμνοφυλλοσκόπος)
Prunella modularis (Θαμνοψάλτης)
Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax docilis (Κοκκινοκαλιακούδα)
Regulus regulus (Χρυσοβασιλίσκος)
Saxicola rubetra (Καστανολαίμης)
Streptopelia turtur (Τριγώνι)
Sturnus vulgaris tauricus (Ψαρόνι του Ταύρου)
Sylvia atricapilla (Μαυροσκούφης)
Sylvia borin borin (Κηποτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia cantillans albistriata (Κοκκινοτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia communis communis (Θαμνοτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia hortensis crassirostris (Δεντροτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia rueppelli (Μουστακοτσιροβάκος)
Turdus philomelos (Τσίχλα)
Upupa epops epops (Τσαλαπετεινός)
Αξιόλογα Αμφίβια / Ερπετά
Bufo viridis viridis (Πρασινόφρυνος)
Chalcides ocellatus ocellatus (Λιακόνι)
Coluber gemonensis gemonensis
Elaphe situla (Σπιτόφιδο)
Hemidactylus turcicus turcicus (Σαμιαμίδι)
Lacerta trilineata cariensis (Τρανόσαυρα της Ικαρίας)
Podarcis erhardii amorgensis (Σιλιβούτι της Αμοργού)
Αξιόλογα Ψάρια
Αξιόλογα Ασπόνδυλα
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