NatureBank - Βιότοπος NATURA - NISOS GYAROS KAI THALASSIA ZONI

Στοιχεία Τόπου

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Κωδικοί τόπων
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Γενικά Στοιχεία

Όνομα NISOS GYAROS KAI THALASSIA ZONI
Κατηγορία Τόπου Βιότοπος NATURA
Κωδικός Τόπου GR4220033
Κύριος Χαρακτήρας
Βιότοπος
Φυσικό Τοπίο
Δομημένο Τοπίο
Διοικητική Υποδιαίρεση Νομός Κυκλάδων
Δήμος-Κοινότητα
Συνολική Έκταση (ha) 26114.30
Χερσαία Έκταση (ha) 1778.4
Συνολική Περίμετρος (km) 60.1
Μέγιστο Υψόμετρο (m)
Ελάχιστο Υψόμετρο (m)
Ένταξη στο Υπάρχον Θεσμικό Πλαίσιο

Χαρακτηριστικά

Τύπος Τοπίου
Κλίμα
Γεωλογία
Περιγραφή Τόπου Gyaros is an arid, deserted island in the northern Cyclades, in the central Aegean Sea with a total area of 17,76 square km. This small island of the Aegean Sea served as place of exile for important persons in the early Roman empire. The island was used from the end of World War II until 1974 as an exile island for political dissidents; from 1974 - 2000 the Hellenic government used the island as a target range for the navy. Since then, Gyaros has been open to the public but due to unexploded ammunition still lying around, human presence on the island has remained limited. The site includes the islands of Gyaros and the surrounding marine area of 3 nautical miles from the coastline. Cultivation has been practiced in the past and numerous terraces are found around the hills, nowadays abandoned. The natural vegetation on the island is ranging from prhygana to low and high shrubs (Juniperus spp.). The Gyaros whip snake was considered till recently to be an endemic of Gyaros island. Recent research however suggests that the population of Gyaros has resulted from a translocation of Hierophis viridiflavus from the Italian peninsula. On Gyaros the species has adapted to dry areas with phrygana or maquis. Very little is known on its ecology. The coasts are mostly rocky with chasmophytic and aero-haline vegetation. Sandy beaches with hamophilous communities are formed around Gyaros. Numerous sea caves are formed along the coast of the island. Gyaros is uninhabited. There are no roads or other infrastructure on the island apart from a few abandoned houses and prison shettlements at the east coast. In the marine environment, extended underwater prairies of Posidonia oceanica are present. Among them, reefs and sandbanks, large densities of the bivalve mollusk Pinna nobilis, sponges Axinella spp., sea urchins Centrostephanus longispinus, trumpet tritons Charonia tritonis and the parrotfish Sparisoma cretense have been observed. The invasive green algae Caulerpa racemosa had covered large areas at all depths and among all habitat types.
Κατάσταση Τόπου
Εγκατάλειψη οικισμών
Τάση Κατάστασης Τόπου
Ιστορία και εξέλιξη του τόπου
Σημεία με καλή Θέα
Μονοπάτια Περίπατοι

Αξίες

Οικολογική Αξία
Κοινωνικοοικονομική/πολιτιστική Αξία
Αισθητική Αξία
Σχόλιο για τις αξίες The whole site is of utmost importance for the survival of the Critically Endangered Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus). Field surveys carried out in 2004 - 2007, identified throughout the 37km coastline of Gyaros, eight coastal caves suitable for monk seals; 3 of them were considered to be suitable for resting and pupping, while the other five were considered to be suitable for resting. In October 2007 six newborn pups were recorded inside a cave. This is the highest number of newborn pups recorded simultaneously in the eastern Mediterranean. Annual pup counts from 2004 - 2007 recorded an annual birth rate of 7 pups, which is amongst the highest rates recorded in the world. In addition, low human activity in the area over the past years has accounted for a return of the species to occupying open beaches for resting and reproducing. This kind of behaviour, which is considered to be the original behaviour of the species and is rarely observed nowadays due to human disturbance, has never been recorded in the eastern Mediterranean. Annual pupping rates and the behaviour of the species indicate the existence of large colony of the species in the area, as well as, the existence of excellent habitat. The terrestrial habitat quality is matched, as indicated by the size of the monk seal population it supports, by the quality of the marine environment. Posidonia beds are abundant in the littoral zone, hosting a rich ichthyofauna. Large densities of the bivalve mollusk Pinna nobilis have also been observed. 170 pairs of Eleonora's falcon breed on the rocky cliffs of the island, while there are strong indications that Cory's shearwaters and Audouin's gulls also breed. In addition, large groups of European Storm-petrels have been sighted in the area, which could indicate that the species breeds here, although this has not been verified yet.

Κίνδυνοι

Απειλές/διαταραχές
Σχόλιο για τις απειλές-διαταραχές
Τρωτότητα Until recently, human activities on the island and the surrounding marine area occurred at low levels. With the opening of the area to human activities, an increase, especially in fishing activities around the island, has been recorded. There have been occasional reports of intensive spear gun fishing and occasional dynamite fishing. Grazing by goats, sheep and pigs in the terrestrial part of the island has been also reported.
Προτεραιότητα προστασίας

Πανίδα και Χλωρίδα

Χαρακτηριστικά Ενδιαιτήματα
Αξιόλογα Φυτά
Centaurea raphanina mixta
Crocus cartwrightianus
Filago cretensis cretensis
Fritillaria graeca
Fritillaria obliqua
Limonium ocymifolium
Ophrys heldreichii
Ophrys lutea lutea
Serapias lingua
Serapias vomeracea laxiflora
Αξιόλογα Θηλαστικά
Monachus monachus (Μεσογειακή φώκια)
Αξιόλογα Πτηνά
Buteo buteo buteo (Γερακίνα)
Calonectris diomedea (Αρτέμης)
Columba livia gaddi (Αγριοπερίστερο)
Falco eleonorae (Μαυροπετρίτης)
Hydrobates pelagicus (Υδροβάτης)
Larus audouinii (Αιγαιόγλαρος)
Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Θαλασσοκόρακας)
Αξιόλογα Αμφίβια / Ερπετά
Αξιόλογα Ψάρια
Αξιόλογα Ασπόνδυλα
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