NatureBank - Βιότοπος NATURA - OROS OLIGYRTOS

Στοιχεία Τόπου

Επίπεδα τόπων:
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Κωδικοί τόπων
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Κτηματολόγιο Α.Ε.

Γενικά Στοιχεία

Όνομα OROS OLIGYRTOS
Κατηγορία Τόπου Βιότοπος NATURA
Κωδικός Τόπου GR2530004
Κύριος Χαρακτήρας
Βιότοπος
Φυσικό Τοπίο
Δομημένο Τοπίο
Διοικητική Υποδιαίρεση Νομός Κορινθίας
Δήμος-Κοινότητα
Συνολική Έκταση (ha) 8630.65
Χερσαία Έκταση (ha) 8630.65
Συνολική Περίμετρος (km) 65.9
Μέγιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 1940.0
Ελάχιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 639.0
Ένταξη στο Υπάρχον Θεσμικό Πλαίσιο

Χαρακτηριστικά

Τύπος Τοπίου
Κλίμα
Γεωλογία
Περιγραφή Τόπου The examined mountain extends over the northeastern part of central Peloponnisos and connects the mountains of Zireia on the north, Artemision and Farmakas on the SE and Saitas on the west. The mountain consists of three main branches: a) Mavrovouni or Parnias (1695 m) on the northeastern part, densely forested; b) Mavres Korifes (Apelavron Oros), extending from the highest summit Skipiza (1935 m) eastwards between the lake of Stymfalia and the valley of Skoteini, and c) Skiathis (1777 m) on the southern part, a rocky, steep sloped massif. The largest northern and central part of the mountain consists of deeply karstified limestones belonging to the Tripoli geotectonical zone. Less extended metamorphic schists are also encountered. In the southern part, limestones of the Pindos-zone dominate with local outcrops of cherts and flysch rocks. The highest zone of the mountain includes stony slopes, steep rocky cliffs, and grasslands. The Abies cephalonica forests prefer the northern part of the mountain and altitudes of 1200-1600 m (in some cases, however, Abies are present in altitudes lower than 700m), while the southern part is overgrazed, with scattered Quercus and remnants of maquis or older forests. The summit-chain of Oligyrtos is the water boundary between the basin areas of Feneos (alt.710 m) on the northwest, of the lake of Stymphalia (alt. 600 m) on the northeast, of Alea (alt. 600 m) on the southeast and of Kandila (alt. 630 m) on the south. The main gorges and ravines have a NE-SW direction but they are not very deep. Large springs emerge mainly along the southern boundary of Oligyrtos between limestones and the Kandila plain sediments. The main springs (Kourpa and Sintzi) are connected to a river which flows to the Plaissia sinkhole. In the area of the springs a wetland is formed. Another large spring emerges at the northeastern part of the mountain, at the Lafka area, contributing to the water balance of the lake Stymfalia, which is the most important mountainous wetland of NE Peloponnisos. There is also a large spring on the foothills of Skiathis near the village of Alea, the water of which flows towards the sinkhole of the Alea karstic plain.
Κατάσταση Τόπου
Εγκατάλειψη οικισμών
Τάση Κατάστασης Τόπου
Ιστορία και εξέλιξη του τόπου
Σημεία με καλή Θέα
Μονοπάτια Περίπατοι

Αξίες

Οικολογική Αξία
Κοινωνικοοικονομική/πολιτιστική Αξία
Αισθητική Αξία
Σχόλιο για τις αξίες This region is of great importance, due to the following features: 1) Mt. Oligyrtos is in the central part between the Feneos, Stymfalia and Kantila mountain plains, which are the most important hydrological basins of N Peloponnisos; 2) It is an area of high altitudes and important forests in the northern part, with habitats suitable for plants and animals, and the rocky steep slopes of the crest areas (and not only them) also include habitats which are suitable for rare and endemic plants; 3) Many interesting plant taxa are found in the examined area. From the plants listed in section 3.3, the following taxa - Erysimum pectinatum, Aurinia moreana, Thlaspi graecum, Sideritis clandestina, Scrophularia heterophylla var. taygetea, Valeriana olenaea, Anthemis laconica, Adonis cyllenea - are endemic to Peloponnisos and 10 taxa - Abies cephalonica, Silene auriculata, Cerastium candidissimum, Crataegus pycnoloba, Draba lacaitae, Rhamnus sibthorpianus, Asperula taygetea, Galium peloponnesiacum, Achillea umbellata, Fritillaria graeca- are Greek endemics. Abies cephalonica, Asperula taygeta, Scrophularia taygetes, Valeriana olenaea are classified as "Rare" in the WCMC Plants Database, as well as the IUCN R.D.B. Valeriana olenaea is protected by Greek legislation (Presidential Decree 67/1981). Centaurea raphanina ssp. mixta, Cerastium candidissimum, Crataegus pycnoloba, Draba lacaitae, Erysimum pectinatum, Galium peloponnesiacum, Rhamnus sibthorpianus, Satureja parnassica, Sideritis clandestina, Thlaspi graecum are listed as "Not Threatened" in the WCMC Plants Database, as well as in the IUCN Red Data Book, but they may well be in danger. Achillea umbellata is characterized with "?" in the WCMC Plants Database. Adonis cyllenea, characterized as "E" in the WCMC Plants Database, and as "V" in the IUCN RDB, is protected by Greek legislation (Presidential Decree 67/1981). It was known only from Mt. Killini and was thought to be an extinct species, when it was rediscovered on Mt. Oligyrtos (Parnias) a few years ago. It is elsewhere known only fron one collection from Pontus in NE Turkey but this record requires verification. The protection of this species is of great importance. The plants marked with the letter D in section 3.3 have interesting geographical distribution, such as: a) Arenaria filicaulis subsp. graeca, Minuartia stellata, Scrophularia laciniata, Pedicularis graeca, Campanula spatulata, Achillea holosericea, Lilium chalcedonicum and Poa thessala, which are Balkan endemics, the last two being protected by Greek legislation (Presidential Decree 67/1981), while Peucedanum longifolium is distributed in the Balkan peninsula and C Romania; b) Thymus leucotrichus, Galium incanum subsp. incanum and Tulipa orphanidea are distributed in Greece and Turkey, while Thymus leucotrichus is also distributed in Lebanon -Syria. Tulipa orphanidea and Gallium incanum subsp. incanum are protected by the Greek legislation (Presidential Decree 67/1981); c) Alyssum siculum and Saxifraga adscendens subsp. parnassica have a distribution mainly in S Italy, Sicily and Greece, ( the first of them also in the SouthernBalkans . Taxus baccata which has a scattered distribution in Europe, N. Africa and W. Asia has also been observed within the forests of Mt. Oligyrtos. 4) If the continuity of the forest is ensured and extended to the southern part of the mountain, as it was in the past, Mt. Oligyrtos may act as the "connecting member" to the extended and important mountainous ecosystems of Mts Kyllini and Chelmos, as well as to that of Mt. Artemisio and Farmakas in the southeast. Thus the living conditions of the forest mammals could be substantially improved, since their very existence depends on the presence of the extended forest ecosystems. 5) The occurrence of many endemic taxa and the diversity of the local fauna are also good indicators of this site's quality. The evaluated vertebrate fauna of this site (excluding birds) consists of several recorded taxa. Some of the reptilian species are mentioned in Annex II of the Directive 92/43/EEC (see section 3.2). As regards the Other Important taxa tabulated in section 3.3, the occurrence of some Greek endemics should be emphasized (motivation B). Αll the animal taxa of sections 3.2, 3.3 are protected by the Bern Convention. For the taxa of the latter two sections, this is indicated by the C motivation. Besides the Bern Convention, the wildcat Felis silvestris is also mentioned by the CITES Convention. Some of the reported animals are also protected by Greek Legislation (Presidential Decree 67/1981); these have been allocated the motivation D. Likewise, the same motivation has been allocated to Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea, Podarcis muralis and Felis silvestris since they are also evaluated by the CORINE-Biotopes Project. The hare Lepus europaeus is marked with motivation D because of its general rarity in Greece due to intensive hunting.

Κίνδυνοι

Απειλές/διαταραχές
Σχόλιο για τις απειλές-διαταραχές
Τρωτότητα The forests are vulnerable to fire. Overgrazing of the area could endanger the existence of endemic and rare plant species as well as the natural regeneration of young trees and shrubs. The construction of roads accessible by cars enables people of poor environmental awareness to undertake anti-ecological activities in the mountain area, thus disturbing the ecosystem, promoting soil erosion and producing dust in the summer period. Dust is a severe danger to the assimilation of plants. Locally intensive grazing seems to be the main factor resulting in a decrease of the fauna at this site. This is because grazing exerts an indirect influence on habitats by altering the existing flora and vegetation. Hunting is another reason for the degradation of the fauna at this site.
Προτεραιότητα προστασίας

Πανίδα και Χλωρίδα

Χαρακτηριστικά Ενδιαιτήματα
Αξιόλογα Φυτά
Abies cephalonica (Κεφαλλονίτικο έλατο)
Achillea umbellata monocephala
Adonis cyllenea
Anthemis laconica
Arenaria filicaulis graeca
Asperula taygetea
Aurinia moreana
Centaurea raphanina mixta
Cerastium candidissimum
Crataegus pycnoloba
Draba lacaitae
Erysimum pectinatum
Fritillaria graeca
Galium peloponnesiacum
Lilium chalcedonicum
Minuartia stellata
Peucedanum longifolium
Poa thessala
Rhamnus sibthorpianus (Ράμνος του Σίμπθορπ)
Sideritis clandestina clandestina
Silene auriculata
Thlaspi graecum
Thymus leucotrichus leucotrichus
Tulipa orphanidea
Valeriana olenaea
Αξιόλογα Θηλαστικά
Felis silvestris morea (Αγριόγατος του Μωριά)
Lepus europaeus carpathous (Λαγός της Καρπάθου)
Martes foina (Κουνάβι)
Meles meles (Ασβός)
Mustela nivalis galinthias (Νυφίτσα)
Αξιόλογα Πτηνά
Αξιόλογα Αμφίβια / Ερπετά
Algyroides moreoticus (Πελοπονησσιακή σαύρα)
Bufo bufo bufo (Χωματόφρυνος)
Bufo viridis viridis (Πρασινόφρυνος)
Coronella austriaca austriaca (Ασινόφιδο)
Elaphe quatuorlineata quatuorlineata (Λαφίτης)
Elaphe situla (Σπιτόφιδο)
Hyla arborea arborea (Δεντροβάτραχος)
Lacerta graeca (Γραικόσαυρα)
Lacerta trilineata cariensis (Τρανόσαυρα της Ικαρίας)
Podarcis muralis albanica (Αλβανική γουστέρα)
Podarcis peloponnesiaca lais (Γουστέρα της Βόρειας Πελοποννήσου)
Rana graeca (Ελληνικός Βάτραχος)
Testudo hermanni hermanni (Ονυχοχελώνα)
Testudo marginata (Κρασπεδωτή χελώνα)
Vipera ammodytes meridionalis (Οχιά)
Αξιόλογα Ψάρια
Αξιόλογα Ασπόνδυλα
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