||The Vardousia mountain range is divided into three groups according to their peak arrangement, the highest being Korakas. The northern group has the smoothest relief while the southern (Korakas 2495 m) and the western consist of abrupt crests and saddles. From a geological point of view, the mountain range belongs to the geotectonic zone of Olonos-Pindos having flysch and limestone as the main substrates. In the northern part of the mountain range, flysch dominates in the lower area and limestone in the higher altitudes. In the southern part concrete limestone dominates. These factors result in the formation of an extended plateau especially in the northern part while steep slopes and conglomerates occur in the south. The presence of flysch contributes to the creation of many torrents and streams which supply the River Evinos to the north, River Kokkinos to the southwest, and River Mornos to the southeast. The vegetation of the mountain range is characterized by the dominance of Abies cephalonica, whereas in some areas Abies borisii regis extends up to an altitude of 1500-1600 m. In the lower areas there are formations of evergreen broad-leaved woodland with the main representatives being Quercus coccifera and Quercus ilex, Arbutus unedo, Juniperus oxycedrus and Erica arborea. Quercus ilex mainly occurs in the area of the river Kokkinos, forming dense stands together with Erica arborea and Arbutus unedo. Among the formations of evergreen broad leaved species, individuals of Quercus conferta and Q. pubescens occur. Around areas of the numerous streams, Platanus orientalis together with Salix alba and Populus alba are prevalent. Above the forest of Abies cephalonica extensive grazing land (stepped grazing lands) occurs, in some parts of which aquatic vegetation exists near fountains or streams. Also, Juniperus formations with Juniperus foetidissima predominating occur. Finally, in the rocky and conglomerate areas, well-adapted plant associations occur.