NatureBank - Βιότοπος NATURA - NOTIOANATOLIKOS PARNASSOS - ETHNIKOS DRYMOS PARNASSOU - DASOS TITHOREAS

Στοιχεία Τόπου

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Κτηματολόγιο Α.Ε.

Γενικά Στοιχεία

Όνομα NOTIOANATOLIKOS PARNASSOS - ETHNIKOS DRYMOS PARNASSOU - DASOS TITHOREAS
Κατηγορία Τόπου Βιότοπος NATURA
Κωδικός Τόπου GR2450005
Κύριος Χαρακτήρας
Βιότοπος
Φυσικό Τοπίο
Δομημένο Τοπίο
Διοικητική Υποδιαίρεση Νομός Φωκίδας
Δήμος-Κοινότητα
Συνολική Έκταση (ha) 18422.57
Χερσαία Έκταση (ha) 18422.57
Συνολική Περίμετρος (km) 65.8
Μέγιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 2427.0
Ελάχιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 360.0
Ένταξη στο Υπάρχον Θεσμικό Πλαίσιο

Χαρακτηριστικά

Τύπος Τοπίου
Κλίμα
Γεωλογία
Περιγραφή Τόπου The site extents within three prefectures, Voiotia, Fthiotida and Fokida. It comprises the National Park of Parnassos with one part in Voiotia and the rest in Fokida, the south-east parts of the mountain and the aesthetic forest of Tithorea, situated in Fthoiotida. The archaeological site of the Delfoi Oracle (Manteio ton Delfon) has also been included in the site. The predominate climate is continental with a relatively cool yet dry summer period, rainy autumn and heavy winter, the latter lasting for many months.The highest rainfall occurs in November with August being the dryest month. The mean annual rainfall is about 1000 mm. There is also a considerable occurrence of hail storms which cause damages to the cultivations and the breeding animals. For at least two months per year, the high peaks of the mountain and definitely the National Park are covered by snow, which lasts from December until March and can reach up to 4 m above ground. At the subalpine zone, the snow goes on melting until the middle of June. The substrate consists of calcareous deposits of various age periods. The aesthetic forest of Tithorea is situated on the north-east side of Parnassos and over the homonymous village. Its altitude ranges from 500m up to 1200m above sea level. Its geomorphology is interesting, with karstic caves and palaeontological rocks. The National Park of Parnassos does not include the highest peaks of the mountain (e.g. Liakoura, Gerontovrachos, etc.). Setting off from the lowest altitude of the site (500 m) and reaching up to 800 m, the sclerophyllous evergreen-broadleaved formations prevail. As the altitude increases, there is a transition towards the montane conifers. There, the predominate forest species is Abies cephalonica (Corine 91 code 42.18, a habitat type not included in Annex I), forming pure extensive stands. Some strands of Pinus pallasiana ssp. nigra can also be observed. In certain spots, the forest is being interrupted by smaller or larger gaps covered by shrubs. It should be noted that the proposed sites of Parnassos and Giona are neighbouring. NOTE ON BIOGEOGRAPHIC REGION: Parnassos mountain (Liakoura 2457 m etc), characterized by Greek fir forest and by mixed forest of Greek fir and Quercus frainetto and by Daphno-Festucetalia, could be considered part of the continental biogeographic region.
Κατάσταση Τόπου
Εγκατάλειψη οικισμών
Τάση Κατάστασης Τόπου
Ιστορία και εξέλιξη του τόπου
Σημεία με καλή Θέα
Μονοπάτια Περίπατοι

Αξίες

Οικολογική Αξία
Κοινωνικοοικονομική/πολιτιστική Αξία
Αισθητική Αξία
Σχόλιο για τις αξίες The quality and importance of the site under consideration is based on the ecological and aesthetic value of its natural elements -especially on its biodiversity- and in the cultural value of its archaeological and historical elements. From an ecological point of view, a variety of vegetation types, which are of excellent structure, are maintained and among them there exist special priority habitat types. This, in conjuction with its interesting geomorphology, make the area remarkably rich in flora and fauna. It has high alpine pastures, bare rocks and scree, and impressive forests, especially the oak forests forests and the endemic fir forest. The National Park of Parnassos was established in 1938 and is the second Greek National Park -the first being Mount Olympos. Its core coincides with a Special Protection Area (SPA), according to the Bird’s Directive. The aesthetic forest of Tithorea has been reported as being considerably rich in terms of flora and fauna, while its karstic formations and caves add to its attractions. The very famous -at a worldwide scale- archaeological site of the Delfoi Oracle (Manteio ton Delfon) has also been included in the proposed site, as it has been thoroughly studied in terms of floral and faunal species’ presence and thus contains some of the most significant species reported. The preservation of Delfoi, even in the form of a natural reserve, is suggested not only for the conservation of the important plant and animal taxa but for its ecotouristic attraction as well. The whole area is particularly important for birds of prey, woodpeckers and alpine birds. Many birds of those reported from the site are listed on Annex I of Council Directive 79/409/EEC, whereas the rest species of birds are being protected by International Conventions. Two of the latter, namely Columba oenas and Coturnix coturnix, are included in the National Red Data List. Some mammals, amphibians, reptiles, invertebrates and plants (Paeonia parnassica and Bupleurum capillare) are listed on Annex II of Council Directive 92/43/EEC. Apart from the bird species referred to above, specific species of mammals (Dryomis nitedula wingei and Spalax leucodon) are also included in the National Red Data List. The site hosts many species of invertebrates, many of them endemic, and many endemic species of plants.OTHER IMPORTANT SPECIES WITH MOTIVATION DPlants: The following species are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and are also included in the IUCN Red List of threatened species (1993): Alyssum doerfleri (rare), Genista parnassica (Rare), Astragalus lacteus (Rare), Seseli parnassicum (Rare), Athamanta densa (Rare), Beta nana (Rare), Silene barbeyana (Rare), Rindera graeca (Rare), Campanula rupicola (Rare), Omphalodes luciliae ssp. scopulorum (Vulnerable), Silene guicciardii (Indeterminate), Stachys swainsonii swainsonii (Rare), Poa trichophylla (Rare), Campanula aizoon ssp. aizooides (Vulnerable), Erodium chrysanthum (Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List of threatened species (1993), also includes the species Euphorbia orphanidis (Rare), Centaurea musarum (Rare), Abies cephalonica (Rare), Galium asparagifolium (Indeternminate).Geranium humbertii, Lactuca intricata, Helictotrichon aetolicum, Scutellaria rupestris ssp. parnassica , Acer opalus ssp. hyrcanum var. reginae-amaliae are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81).The species O. luciliae scopulorum, Erodium chrysanthum, Aquilegia ottonis ssp. ottonis, and Campanula aizoon ssp. aizooides are included in the Coreine Checklist of threatened plants. The Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) also protects the species Viola poetica, Veronica erinoides, Veronica thymifolia.Pinguicula crystallina ssp. hirtiflora is protected by the Bern Convention (1992) (cited on the list as P. crystallina, possibly referring to P. crystallina ssp. crystallina) as well as Asperula lutea, Anthemis spruneri, Cirsium herdreichi, and Sesleria vaginalis.Minuartia stellata (an endemic of Greece & S. Albania). Scutellaria orientalis ssp. alpina and Campanula trichocalycina (at scattered locations) are rare, in GreecePoa thessala, Acer heldreichii, Anthyllis vulneraria ssp. bulgarica, Anthyllis vulneraria ssp. pindicola, Carum heldreichii, Taraxacum gracilens , Campanula spatulata ssp. spatulata , Sesleria tenerrima, Arabis bryoides, Arenaria conferta ssp. conferta, Crocus veluchensis, , Verbascum graecum, Dianthus viscidus, Astragalus creticus ssp. rumelicus , Lilium chalcedonicum, Silene radicosa ssp. radicosa, Minuartia stellata, Malcolmia orsiniana ssp. angulifolia, Dianthus viscidus, Rhamnus saxatilis ssp. prunifolius, Dianthus integer ssp. minutiflorus, Geocaryum pindicolum, Helleborus cyclophyllus, Hieracium parnassi , Sesleria tener rima, Rumex kerneri, Sideritis raeseri ssp. raeseri (=Sideritis sicula ssp. raeseri), Cerastium decalvans, Silene caesia, Taraxacum gracilens, Crataegus heldreichii, Crocus sieberi ssp. sublimis and Carum graecum ssp. graecum are endemic to the Balkan peninsula. Carlina frigida is a species occurring in Greece and possibly extending to Albania. Euphorbia amygdaloides ssp. heldreichii is endemic to Greece and Albania. Valantia aprica is a balkan endemic (Greece, Albania)Galium incanum ssp. incanum is a species with distribution in Greece, Anatolia. Erigeron epiroticus is a species occurring in the S.W. part of the Balkan peninsula and locally in Italy. Acantholimon echinus ssp. echinus is a species with distribution in Greece and W Anatolia. Amelanchier ovalis ssp. cretica is a species with distribution in Sicily and Greece. Astragalus thracicus ssp. parnassi is a plant with distribution in Sterea Ellada, Thessalia, Samos, occurring only in W Anatolia out of Greece. Campanula trichocalycina (=Asyneuma trichocalycinum) is a rather rare plant with scattered localities in Greece (distribution Balkan peninsula, Sicily, Italy). Festuca polita occurs onlty in W. Anatolia out of Greece. Geranium macrostylum is a species with East Mediterranean distribution occurring in Albania, S former Jugoslavia, W & C Anatolia, Greece. Lamium garganicum ssp. garganicum is a species with distribution in Distribution in S & C Greece and S Italy. Ornithogalum refractum is species occurring in SE Europe, Anatolia and Caucasus, obviously rare in Greece. Scutellaria rupestris ssp. adenotricha is almost confined to Greece (just extending to S Albania). Silene marschalli is a species of SW Asia occurring only on Parnassos in Greece and Europe.Vertebrates: The following species are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81): Dryomys nitedula wingei, Sciurus vulgaris, Rana dalmatina, Rana graeca, Salamandra salamandra, Triturus vulgaris, Triturus alpestris (including subspecies). The species Dryomys nitedula wingei, Rana dalmatina, Rana graeca are also considered species of Community importance, included in Annex IV of the Directive 92/43/EEC.Invertebrates:The following species are considered in need of protection in Europe (Legakis, 1995): Carcharodus flocciferous (Rare), Iolana iolas (Rare), Styrmonidia w-alba (Vulnerable), Thersmonia thetis (Endangered). Parnaasius apollo is considered an endangered species in Europe and is protected by international conventions (Bernn, CITES) as well as by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81), and included in the IUCN Red List of threatened species as «Rare». The Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) protects the species Leptidea duponcheli, Cyaniris helena, Hipparchia aristaeus and Thersmonia thetis.

Κίνδυνοι

Απειλές/διαταραχές
Σχόλιο για τις απειλές-διαταραχές
Τρωτότητα The National Park of Parnassos has been facing a lot of problems, the most important of which is the lack of a periphery where some basic restrictions will ensure its better protection. The human activities within the site include stock-raising, hunting, recreation, cultivations and mining. Increasing human disturbance, such as skiing and house building, together with illegal shooting and large scale open-cast bauxite mining are affecting the area.The records of fire events in as well as around the site show a low occurrence of fires, yet the danger is not of minimal importance.
Προτεραιότητα προστασίας

Πανίδα και Χλωρίδα

Χαρακτηριστικά Ενδιαιτήματα
Αξιόλογα Φυτά
Abies cephalonica (Κεφαλλονίτικο έλατο)
Acantholimon echinus echinus (Ακανθολιμών ο εχίνος)
Acer heldreichii heldreichii (Αγριοπλάτανος)
Achillea umbellata monocephala
Allium parnassicum minoicum
Alyssum doerfleri
Alyssum gustavssonii
Amelanchier ovalis cretica (Αμελάνχιερ το κρητικό)
Anthyllis vulneraria bulgarica
Aquilegia ottonis ottonis
Arabis bryoides
Arenaria conferta conferta
Asperula boissieri
Asperula lutea
Astragalus apollineus
Astragalus hellenicus
Astragalus lacteus
Astragalus sempervirens cerhalonicus
Beta nana
Bolanthus thessalus
Bolanthus thymifolius
Bupleurum capillare (Βούπλευρο το τρίχιο)
Campanula aizoon aizoides
Campanula radicosa
Campanula rupicola
Campanula topaliana delphica
Carum heldreichii
Centaurea musarum
Cerastium candidissimum
Cirsium heldreichii euboicum
Colchicum boissieri
Colchicum parnassicum
Corydalis parnassica
Crocus hadriaticus
Crocus veluchensis
Daphne jasminea (Δαφνούλα ιασμινοειδής)
Dianthus biflorus
Dianthus haematocalyx ventricosus
Dianthus integer minutiflorus
Draba lacaitae
Draba parnassica
Edraianthus parnassicus
Erodium chrysanthum
Erysimum parnassi
Euphorbia orphanidis
Genista parnassica (Γενίστα του Παρνασσού)
Geocaryum pumilum
Gypsophila nana
Laserpitium pseudomeum
Lilium chalcedonicum
Lysimachia serpyllifolia
Minuartia confusa
Minuartia stellata
Nepeta parnassica
Odontites linkii
Paeonia parnassica
Poa thessala
Rhamnus sibthorpianus (Ράμνος του Σίμπθορπ)
Rindera graeca
Sedum apoleipon
Seseli parnassicum
Silene auriculata
Silene barbeyana
Silene radicosa
Stachys swainsonii swainsonii
Thamnosciadium junceum
Trifolium parnassi
Trinia frigida
Verbascum graecum
Verbascum speciosum megaphlomos
Veronica thymifolia
Viola graeca
Viola poetica
Αξιόλογα Θηλαστικά
Dryomys nitedula wingei (Δεντρομυωξός)
Myotis myotis (Τρανομυωτίδα)
Rhinolophus hipposideros (Μικρορινόλοφος)
Sciurus vulgaris ameliae (Σκίουρος Αμέλιος)
Αξιόλογα Πτηνά
Accipiter brevipes (Σαΐνι)
Accipiter gentilis butoides (Διπλοσάινο)
Accipiter nisus nisus (Τσιχλογέρακο)
Aegypius monachus (Μαυρόγυπας)
Alauda arvensis arvensis (Σταρήθρα)
Anthus campestris campestris (Χαμοκελάδα)
Anthus pratensis pratensis (Λιβαδοκελάδα)
Anthus spinoletta littoralis (Νεροκελάδα …)
Anthus trivialis trivialis (Δενδροκελάδα)
Apus apus apus (Σταχτάρα)
Apus melba melba (Σκεπαρνάς)
Apus pallidus illyricus (Ωχροσταχτάρα)
Aquila chrysaetos chrysaetos (Χρυσαητός)
Bubo bubo bubo (Μπούφος)
Buteo buteo buteo (Γερακίνα)
Buteo rufinus rufinus (Αητογερακίνα)
Calandrella brachydactyla (Μικρογαλιάντρα)
Caprimulgus europaeus (Γυδοβυζάχτρα)
Carduelis spinus (Λούγαρο)
Cercotrichas galactotes (Κουφαηδόνι)
Circaetus gallicus (Φιδαητός)
Circus aeruginosus (Καλαμόκιρκος)
Circus cyaneus (Βαλτόκιρκος)
Circus macrourus (Στεπόκιρκος)
Circus pygargus (Λιβαδόκιρκος)
Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Κοκκοθραύστης)
Columba oenas oenas (Φασσοπερίστερο)
Columba palumbus palumbus (Φάσσα)
Coracias garrulus (Χαλκοκουρούνα)
Coturnix coturnix (Ορτύκι)
Cuculus canorus (Κούκος)
Delichon urbica urbica (Σπιτοχελίδονο)
Dendrocopos leucotos lilfordi (Λευκονώτης)
Dendrocopos medius medius (Μεσοτσικλητάρα)
Dendrocopos syriacus (Βαλκανοτσικλητάρα)
Dryocopus martius martius (Μαυροτσικλητάρα)
Emberiza caesia (Σκουρόβλαχος)
Emberiza citrinella (Χιρλοτσίχλονο)
Emberiza hortulana (Βλάχος)
Emberiza melanocephala (Αμπελουργός)
Erithacus rubecula balcanica (Κοκκινολαίμης των Βαλκανίων)
Falco biarmicus feldeggi (Χρυσογέρακο)
Falco eleonorae (Μαυροπετρίτης)
Falco naumanni (Κιρκινέζι)
Falco peregrinus brookei (Πετρίτης)
Falco subbuteo (Δεντρογέρακο)
Ficedula albicollis (Κρικομυγοχάφτης)
Ficedula hypoleuca (Μαυρομυγοχάφτης)
Ficedula semitorquata (Δρυομυγοχάφτης)
Fringilla coelebs coelebs (Σπίνος)
Fringilla montifringilla (Χειμωνόσπινος)
Gypaetus barbatus aureus (Γυπαητός)
Gyps fulvus (Όρνιο)
Hieraaetus fasciatus (Σπιζαητός)
Hieraaetus pennatus (Σταυραητός)
Hippolais icterina (Κιτρινοστριτσίδα)
Hippolais olivetorum (Λιοστριτσίδα)
Hippolais pallida elaeica (Ωχροστριτσίδα)
Hirundo daurica rufula (Δεντροχελίδονο)
Hirundo rustica rustica (Χελιδόνι)
Jynx torquilla torquilla (Στραβολαίμης)
Lanius collurio collurio (Αητόμαχος)
Lanius minor (Γαϊδουροκεφαλάς)
Lanius senator senator (Κοκκινοκέφαλος)
Lullula arborea arborea (Δεντροσταρήθρα)
Luscinia megarhynchos (Αηδόνι)
Merops apiaster (Μελισσοφάγος)
Monticola saxatilis (Πετροκότσυφας)
Motacilla alba alba (Λευκοσουσουράδα)
Motacilla cinerea (Σταχτοσουσουράδα)
Motacilla flava beema (Κιτρινοσουσουράδα)
Muscicapa striata neumanni (Σταχτομυγοχάφτης)
Neophron percnopterus (Ασπροπάρης)
Oenanthe hispanica (Ασπροκώλα)
Oenanthe oenanthe oenanthe (Σταχτοπετρόκλης)
Oriolus oriolus oriolus (Συκοφάγος)
Otus scops (Γκιώνης)
Pernis apivorus (Σφηκιάρης)
Phoenicurus ochruros (Καρβουνιάρης)
Phoenicurus phoenicurus phoenicurus (Κοκκινονούρης)
Phylloscopus bonelli orientalis (Βουνοφυλλοσκόπος)
Phylloscopus collybita abietinus (Δενδροφυλλοσκόπος των ελάτων)
Phylloscopus sibilatrix (Δασοφυλλοσκόπος)
Phylloscopus trochilus acredula (Θαμνοφυλλοσκόπος)
Prunella modularis (Θαμνοψάλτης)
Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax docilis (Κοκκινοκαλιακούδα)
Regulus regulus (Χρυσοβασιλίσκος)
Riparia riparia riparia (Οχθοχελίδονο)
Saxicola rubetra (Καστανολαίμης)
Scolopax rusticola (Μπεκάτσα)
Streptopelia turtur (Τριγώνι)
Sturnus roseus (Αγιοπούλι)
Sturnus vulgaris tauricus (Ψαρόνι του Ταύρου)
Sylvia atricapilla (Μαυροσκούφης)
Sylvia borin borin (Κηποτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia cantillans albistriata (Κοκκινοτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia communis communis (Θαμνοτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia curruca curruca (Λαλοτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia hortensis crassirostris (Δεντροτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia nisoria nisoria (Ψαλτοτσιροβάκος)
Turdus iliacus iliacus (Κοκκινότσιχλα)
Turdus philomelos (Τσίχλα)
Turdus pilaris (Κεδρότσιχλα)
Upupa epops epops (Τσαλαπετεινός)
Αξιόλογα Αμφίβια / Ερπετά
Bombina variegata scabra (Κιτρινοβομβίνα)
Coluber caspius (Ζαμενής (Αστραπόφιδο))
Coronella austriaca austriaca (Ασινόφιδο)
Hyla arborea arborea (Δεντροβάτραχος)
Lacerta viridis meridionalis (Πρασινόσαυρα η …)
Ophisaurus apodus thracius (Τυφλίτης)
Podarcis muralis albanica (Αλβανική γουστέρα)
Rana dalmatina (Ευκίνητος Βάτραχος)
Rana graeca (Ελληνικός Βάτραχος)
Salamandra salamandra salamandra (Σαλαμάνδρα)
Testudo hermanni hermanni (Ονυχοχελώνα)
Testudo marginata (Κρασπεδωτή χελώνα)
Triturus vulgaris graecus (Κοινός Τρίτωνας)
Vipera ammodytes meridionalis (Οχιά)
Αξιόλογα Ψάρια
Αξιόλογα Ασπόνδυλα
Anthocharis damone (Ανθόχαρις του Δάμωνα)
Cyaniris helena (Κουανίρις η Ελένη)
Lycaeides argyrognomon (Λουκαΐδης ο αργυρογνώμων)
Papilio alexanor (Παπίλιο ο Αλεξάνωρ)
Parnassius apollo (Παρνάσσιος ο Απόλλων)
Parnassius mnemosyne athene (Παρνάσσιος των Αθηνών)
Pieris ergane (Πιερίς η Εργάνη)
Plebejus pylaon brethertoni (Πλεμπέγιος του Μπρέθερτον)
Thersamonia thetis (Θερσαμονία η Θέτις)
Zerynthia polyxena (Ζερύνθια η Πολυξένη)
Σχόλια για τα είδη