NatureBank - Βιότοπος NATURA - ETHNIKOS DRYMOS OITIS - KOILADA ASOPOU

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Κτηματολόγιο Α.Ε.

Γενικά Στοιχεία

Όνομα ETHNIKOS DRYMOS OITIS - KOILADA ASOPOU
Κατηγορία Τόπου Βιότοπος NATURA
Κωδικός Τόπου GR2440007
Κύριος Χαρακτήρας
Βιότοπος
Φυσικό Τοπίο
Δομημένο Τοπίο
Διοικητική Υποδιαίρεση Νομός Φθιώτιδας
Δήμος-Κοινότητα
Συνολική Έκταση (ha) 13088.40
Χερσαία Έκταση (ha) 13088.4
Συνολική Περίμετρος (km) 66.9
Μέγιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 2103.0
Ελάχιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 52.0
Ένταξη στο Υπάρχον Θεσμικό Πλαίσιο

Χαρακτηριστικά

Τύπος Τοπίου
Κλίμα
Γεωλογία
Περιγραφή Τόπου The site is on the mountain of Oiti. It covers some of the highest peaks of the mountain (all of them above 2000 m), but not the highest one, called Pyrgos (2152 m), which is not included in the National Forest. The main parent rock material of the mountain is the limestone. This is the reason why carstic formations of great aesthetic value are widespread in the site; the nature of the parent rock material has led to the formation of numerous caves in and around the site. The most famous of all is that of Anemotrypa (Spilaio Anemotrypas), above the village of Ypati, at the north-western part of the site. In the core of the National Park there is a small alpine plateau, Leivadeies, with interesting herbaceous vegetation and with a pond which floods during the summer months in its centre. The vegetation of the site is dominated by endemic greek fir, Abies cephalonica, forests (habitat type not included in Annex I of the Directive 92/43/CEE, Corine 91 code 42.18). Another two habitat types, not included in Annex I are the Trifoliun parnassi associations (36.35 in CORINE 1991) and the greek supra-mediterranean humid meadows (37.61 in CORINE 1991). At lower altitudes the vegetation is being replaced by Quercus frainetto forests and maquis vegetation which is dominated by moderately grazed Quercus coccifera tall shrubs. At the higher peaks the vegetation is the typical vegetation of the alpine zone of Central Greece. A small association of Pinus pallasiana ssp. nigra (Palla's pine) is found at the north-eastern part of the site. NOTE ON BIOGEOGRAPHIC REGION: Oiti mountain (Pyrgos 2152 m), characterized by Greek fir forest and by Trifolion resupinati and Trifoliοn parnassi, could be considered part of the continental biogeographic region.
Κατάσταση Τόπου
Εγκατάλειψη οικισμών
Τάση Κατάστασης Τόπου
Ιστορία και εξέλιξη του τόπου
Σημεία με καλή Θέα
Μονοπάτια Περίπατοι

Αξίες

Οικολογική Αξία
Κοινωνικοοικονομική/πολιτιστική Αξία
Αισθητική Αξία
Σχόλιο για τις αξίες The National Forest of Mt. Oiti is regarded as one of the best national forests of Greece, both in terms of ecological importance and of status of management. It was founded in 1966 for the conservation of the mountain's unique flora and wildlife in general. The national park has been designated as a Special Protection Area (SPA) for birds. As shown on the section of "other important species", many greek endemic taxa have been included in the flora of the site, some of them being protected by the greek law. Furthermore, many balkan endemics are found in the area of the site. The fauna of the site is also of great importance, as it includes species of Annex II (Rupicapra rupicapra balcanica, Aquila chrysaetos, Bubo bubo etc.), an endemic lizard (Podarcis erchardi erchardi) and some endemic invertebrates. The most striking characteristic of the wildlife of the site in question is the existence of a great variety of habitats in a rather small area. Fifteen types of habitats have been noted, three of them not included in Annex I of Directive 92/43/EEC. The highest peaks are typical of the central greek alpine zone and it is at those elevations that the majority of the endemic taxa grow. Of great ecological importance is the plateau at Leivadies with at least tree types of grasslands and an amazing variety of plants and insects and with the temporary pond which provides niche to an important population of Triturus alpestris. In addition, the Pinus nigra association is of great ecological importance because of its isolation from the rest P. nigra forests of Central Greece. The caves formed in the mountain are of spilaiologic interest, especially the cave of Anemotrypa; yet, a great deal of research has to be done in order to provide the necessary information for the evaluation of the importance of those caves.The mountain of Oiti is closely related to Greek history, both modern and ancient. It was in that area that an important part of the fights during the greek revolution (1821-1827) and the German occupation (1941-1944) took place. It was during the late Byzantine period that Ypati met its greatest development - the impressive monastery of Agathonas was constructed during that era. Finally, it was on the highest peak of Oiti that Hercule was supposed to have put an end to his life and to have given his weapons to Philoctitis. Temples for Hercule and Diana are believed to had been built there but no remains of them can be seen nowadays. In the monastery of Agathonas there is a small Natural History museum. This museum provides basic information on the wildlife of mountain Oiti, thus contributing to the environmental awareness of the public.OTHER IMPORTANT SPECIES WITH MOTIVATION DPLANTS: Asperula lutea, Asperula oetaea, Chaerophyllum heldreichii, Cirsium mairei (rare, IUCN 1993), Genista millii, Scorzonera crocifolia, Viola poetica, are greek endemic taxa that are protected by the Presidential Decree 67/81. Allium phthioticum, Astragalus lacteus are balkan endemic taxa protected by the Presidential Decree 67/81.Barbarea sicula is included in the IUCN list in the category of threatened plants as «vulnerable». Alyssum doefleri is a balkan endemic with Oiti being its southernmost station and it is protected by the Presidential Decree 67/81. Rosa arvensis is a species considered «endangered» in the World (IUCN, 1993). Aethionema cordatum found in Turkey, Lebanon and Syria with only two stations of it in Europe, both in Greece, on Mt. Oiti and on Chelmos. This species is protected by the Presidential Decree 67/81 and considered «vulnerable» in Greece and in Europe (IUCN, 1993).Anthyllis vulneraria ssp. bulgarica, Arabis bryoides, Astragalus creticus ssp. rumelicus, Astragalus lacteus, Astragalus mayeri, Campanula spatulata ssp. spatulata, Carlina frigida, Circium appendiculatum, Crocus veluchensis, Cynoglottis barrelieri ssp. serpentinicola, Dianthus gracilis ssp. gracilis, Dianthus integer ssp. minutiflorus, Dianthus stenopetalus, Erysimum cephalonicum (=Erysimum pusillum ssp. cephalonicum, found in Greece and Albania), Geocaryum pindicolum, Helictotrichon aetolium, Helleborus cyclophyllus, Hieracium cymosum ssp. heldreichianum, Hieracium parnassi, Hypericum rumeliacum ssp. apollinis, Knautia magnifica, Lamium garganicum ssp. striatum, Lilium chalcedonicum, Malkolmia orsiniana ssp. angulifolia, Minuartia stellata, Nepeta spruneri, Peucedanum oligophyllum, Poa thessala, Sesleria tenerrima, Sideritis raeseri ssp. raeseri, Silene caesia, Silene radicosa ssp. radicosa, Dianthus viscidus, Carum graecum ssp. graecum, Taraxacum gracileus, Viola aetolica are taxa endemic to the Balkan peninsula.Alyssum pulvinare, is a balkan endemic, the main distribution of which is in Romania and Bulgaria. The alpine population of Oiti is of unknown origin and is unique in Greece (and in Europe). Lythrum thymifolia, is a Euroasian taxon of vernal pools with Oiti being its unique station in Greece. Thlaspi kotschyanum is a species with main distribution area N. Iraq and Iran to W. Pakistan and Thien San, with one station in C Turkey; Mt. Oiti is the only locality in Europe where it grows. Myosurus minimus is a species widespread in the Euro-siberian region and in N. America, but restricted to Oiti and Vermion in Greece. Ophioglossum vulgatum occurs thoughout the temperate regions of the northern hemosphere, but it is rare and scattred in Greece.Acantholimon echinus ssp. lycaonicum, Astragalus thracicus ssp. parnassi, Cardamine raphanifolia ssp. acris, Festuca polita, Geranium macrostyllum, Linum punctatum ssp. pycnophyllum, Ornithogallum oligophyllum, Pimpinella tragium ssp. polyclada are taxa of east-mediterranean distribution, so that Greece is the only european country where they are found. Thymus leucotrichus is a species of the mountains of Greece and Anatolia.Ranunculus lateriflorus, Limosella aquatica, are species associated to each other in wet, muddy locations; an association rather uncommon for Greece.ANIMALS: Dryomys nitedula Sciurus vulgaris Triturus alpestris Bufo viridis Rana graeca Coluber jugularis Lacerta viridis Malpolon monspessulanus Podarcis muralis Podarcis erchardi Coronella austriaca, are vertabrate species which are protected by the Presidential Decree 67/81. Agrodiaetus admetus Parnassius apollo Erebia ottomana Erebia melas Pseudochazara mamura Colias aurorina Thersamonia thetis, are invertabrate species which are protected by the Presidential Decree 67/81. C. Lycaeiodes argyrognomon Plebejus pylaon Brenttis graeca, are invertabrate species which are classified as rare in Europe (Van Toll et all, 1988; Heath, 1981). This is an important area for forest species, and species associated with open montane habitat. Species of concern include Alectoris graeca, Picus viridis, Monticola solitarius, Parus lugubris and Emberiza hortulana.

Κίνδυνοι

Απειλές/διαταραχές
Σχόλιο για τις απειλές-διαταραχές
Τρωτότητα Mt. Oiti's National Park is one of the best protected in Greece. The wildlife is affected by illegal hunting and limited illegal grazing (mostly around the various settlements which exist near the site). Furthermore, the habit of many visitors to collect wild flowers has brought many of the site's rare plants on the line of extinction. Finally, future plans for the tourist development of the mountain pose the wildlife of the site under peril.
Προτεραιότητα προστασίας

Πανίδα και Χλωρίδα

Χαρακτηριστικά Ενδιαιτήματα
Αξιόλογα Φυτά
Αξιόλογα Θηλαστικά
Αξιόλογα Πτηνά
Accipiter gentilis butoides (Διπλοσάινο)
Accipiter nisus nisus (Τσιχλογέρακο)
Alauda arvensis arvensis (Σταρήθρα)
Anthus campestris campestris (Χαμοκελάδα)
Anthus trivialis trivialis (Δενδροκελάδα)
Apus melba melba (Σκεπαρνάς)
Aquila chrysaetos chrysaetos (Χρυσαητός)
Circaetus gallicus (Φιδαητός)
Circus aeruginosus (Καλαμόκιρκος)
Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Κοκκοθραύστης)
Coturnix coturnix (Ορτύκι)
Cuculus canorus (Κούκος)
Dendrocopos leucotos lilfordi (Λευκονώτης)
Dendrocopos medius medius (Μεσοτσικλητάρα)
Dryocopus martius martius (Μαυροτσικλητάρα)
Emberiza hortulana (Βλάχος)
Erithacus rubecula balcanica (Κοκκινολαίμης των Βαλκανίων)
Falco peregrinus brookei (Πετρίτης)
Falco subbuteo (Δεντρογέρακο)
Gyps fulvus (Όρνιο)
Hirundo daurica rufula (Δεντροχελίδονο)
Lanius collurio collurio (Αητόμαχος)
Lanius senator senator (Κοκκινοκέφαλος)
Lullula arborea arborea (Δεντροσταρήθρα)
Luscinia megarhynchos (Αηδόνι)
Monticola saxatilis (Πετροκότσυφας)
Motacilla cinerea (Σταχτοσουσουράδα)
Oenanthe hispanica (Ασπροκώλα)
Pernis apivorus (Σφηκιάρης)
Phoenicurus phoenicurus phoenicurus (Κοκκινονούρης)
Phylloscopus collybita abietinus (Δενδροφυλλοσκόπος των ελάτων)
Picus canus canus (Σταχτοτσικλητάρα)
Sylvia atricapilla (Μαυροσκούφης)
Sylvia cantillans albistriata (Κοκκινοτσιροβάκος)
Αξιόλογα Αμφίβια / Ερπετά
Αξιόλογα Ψάρια
Αξιόλογα Ασπόνδυλα
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