NatureBank - Βιότοπος NATURA - OROS PANACHAIKO

Στοιχεία Τόπου

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Κτηματολόγιο Α.Ε.

Γενικά Στοιχεία

Όνομα OROS PANACHAIKO
Κατηγορία Τόπου Βιότοπος NATURA
Κωδικός Τόπου GR2320007
Κύριος Χαρακτήρας
Βιότοπος
Φυσικό Τοπίο
Δομημένο Τοπίο
Διοικητική Υποδιαίρεση Νομός Αχαϊας
Δήμος-Κοινότητα
Συνολική Έκταση (ha) 12219.51
Χερσαία Έκταση (ha) 12219.51
Συνολική Περίμετρος (km) 50.5
Μέγιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 1926.0
Ελάχιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 392.0
Ένταξη στο Υπάρχον Θεσμικό Πλαίσιο

Χαρακτηριστικά

Τύπος Τοπίου
Κλίμα
Γεωλογία
Περιγραφή Τόπου Mountain Panachaiko is located in the north-western part of Peloponnisos, east of the city of Patras. It is characterized by a multifarious relief, with several peaks, the highest of which is Voidias with an altitude of 1926 m. This mountain is north-south oriented and consists of a representative part of the Olonos-Pindos geotectonic zone. For this reason, the mass of Mt. Panachaiko is characterized by a variety of geological substrates and soil types such as alpine sediments of large width, limestone, argilic schistolith and flysh, which are strongly depressed. Even more depositions of the Pliocene-Quaternary age constisting mainly of argilic elements, conglomerates, pebbles, etc., characterize the area. So, in the upper part of the mountain we can distinguish the following petrological formations: 1) Limestones which include pyritiolithes or limestones without them, 2) Limestone with layers of ceratolithe and argillic schistoliths, and 3) Layers of flysh. These formations are interrupted by many gorges and gullies with flowing streams. The vegetation of several places in the lower altitudes is influenced by human activities (agricultural fields and pastures). The presence of maquis at the roasides and the borders of the fields shows the predominance of this type of vegetation in this area during previous years. At the places where the shruby vegetation is sparser, phrygana with species Phlomis fruticosa, Coridothymus capitatus, Cistus salviifolius, Micromeria juliana, Sarcopoterium spinosum, etc. grows, while in the reclaimed areas, phrygana occur with the dominant species being Phlomis fruticosa. On a large part of the western side of the mountain maquis occur at altitudes of up to 800 m. The dominating species is Quercus coccifera in some places forming unmixed arborescent clusters. Between these shrubs, climbing plants (Clematis flammula, Smilax aspera, Asparagus acutifolius) are developed. At several places near the streams the species Platanus orientalis forms clusters, which follows their beds. The coniferous forests with the endemic species Abies cephalonica mainly grow on the larger part of lower eastern area of the site, above the villages of Pititsa, Ano Salmeniko and Vounopyrgos, as well as on the lower southern part, above the villages of Moira, Veteika and Kounaveika. Smaller areas sparsely covered by Abies cephalonica also occur on the western slopes above the villages Souli, Pournarokastro and Ano Kastritsi. The appearance of isolated solitary trees of Abies cephalonica among the maquis begins from the 750-800 m altitude. The typical Abies forest begins at a higher altitude and extends almost up to 1400 m in several places. For the estimation of the percentage cover of the N17 habitat class (coniferous woodland) the Abies cephalonica forests have been taken into consideration. In some openings of the forest, shrubs of Pistacia lentiscus, Juniperus oxycedrus, Phillyrea media, Quercus coccifera etc., as well as phrygana can be found, while grassy plants such as Crocus sieberi, Ranunculus ficaria, Anemone blanda, Cyclamen neapolitanum, Tussilago farfara etc. are present among them. The Abies cephalonica forest is characterized by good structure mainly at the south-eastern part of the site above the village of Krini and westwards of the peak of Barbas, where it is noteably dense while in the other places it is more sparse. The degradation of Abies forest is a consequence of intense erosion and grazing. Above the forest zone, spiny vegetation (Astragalus angustifolius, A. depressus etc.) dominates. In these zones erosion of limestone has mainly contributed to the formation of a strong relief with steep calcareous cliffs and screes. Dense grasslands of the Mountain- and Oro-Mediterranean vegetation zones participate in the formation of a vegetation complex clearly differentiated into four major vegetation types: open stepped grasslands, calcareous cliffs, calcareous screes and dense closed grasslands. The degraded vegetation accompanied by bare ground describes the main appearance of the landscape in the higher part of the mountain. This bare ground shelters a great amount of the endemic flora of Mt. Panachaiko and is floristically the most important area of this mountain.
Κατάσταση Τόπου
Εγκατάλειψη οικισμών
Τάση Κατάστασης Τόπου
Ιστορία και εξέλιξη του τόπου
Σημεία με καλή Θέα
Μονοπάτια Περίπατοι

Αξίες

Οικολογική Αξία
Κοινωνικοοικονομική/πολιτιστική Αξία
Αισθητική Αξία
Σχόλιο για τις αξίες From a floristic point of view, the major importance of Mt. Panachaiko lies in the presence of many endemic plants. Although there has not been a complete floristic survey from this mountain, many endemic taxa have been recorded as occurring there. Some of these are Peloponnesian endemics (Aurinia moreana, Centaurea affinis subsp. laconiae [=C. affinis subsp. peloponnesiaca], Erysimum pectinatum, Galium taygeteum, Marrubium cylleneum, Onosma erectum subsp. malickyi and Thlaspi graecum). Many of them also have a limited distribution in Peloponnisos and Stera Ellas, or Peloponnisos, Sterea Ellada and the Ionian Islands. Of the Greek endemic plants existing on Mt. Panachaiko, the most important species are Arabis subflava and Teucrium aroanicum, which are classified in the WCMC Plants Database as "Rare", and Aurinia moreana, which exists in few scattered populations or isolated plants limited on the mountains of North Peloponnisos (Erymanthos, Panachaiko, Klokos and Killini), as well as at the Vouraikos gorge. The species Anthemis brachmanii and Arabis subflava are protected by the Presidential Decree 67/1981. As concerns the species listed in section 3.3 with motivation D, the following reasons must be pointed out: Plants with motivation D are Balkan endemics (Erysimum cephalonicum). Of these species Centaurea spruneri is classified in the WCMC Plants Database as "Rare". The species Anthemis cretica subsp. cretica, presents phytogeographical interest as it has a limited distribution in the Balkan peninsula and Anatolia.The appearance of Gymnospermium altaicum subsp. odessanum on Mt. Panachaiko has great phytogeographical significance because it constitutes a typical case of discontinuous distribution. This taxon has a principal distribution area extending from the Crimean peninsula through to Southwestern Ukraine, up to the Northeastern part of Romania. Apart from this area, the taxon occurs in two small populations on Mt. Panachaiko. It is endangered in Greece and grows in an area grazed by sheep and goats (Phitos & Kamari 1990). This plant is included in the Bern Convention,as well as in the WCMC Plants Database as "Endangered". The major phytogeographical importance of Mt. Panachaiko is due to its position; it acts as a bridge between Peloponnisos and Sterea Ellada. The occurrence of many important habitats, such as steep calcareous cliffs and screes, stepped garland, grasslands forest of the endemic Abies cephalonica etc., is characteristic of this mountain.The non-bird vertebrate fauna, which has been recorded at this site, is quite variable. It is composed of taxa of amphibians, reptiles and mammals. Some of these are included in Annex II of the Directive 92/43/EEC, i.e. two bats of the genus Rhinolophus, the terrapin Emys orbicularis, two tortoises of the genus Testudo, and two snakes of the genus Elaphe (section 3.2). All of these are also appear in the lists of the Bern Convention and the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981. The two bats are also threatened species mentioned in the Greek Red Data Book as "Vulnerable" species.Some more taxa are evaluated as Other Important Species as they are marked with one to three motivation signs (section 3.3). The mole, Talpa caeca and the bat Pipistrellus kuhli, are threatened species classified in the threat categories "Insufficiently known" and "Vulnerable" respectively (motivation A), whereas the lizard Podarcis peloponnesiaca are endemic to Peloponnisos (motivation B). All vertebrate taxa of section 3.3 are protected by the Bern Convention (motivation C). All evaluated amphibians and reptiles of the site are also protected by the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981. The taxa mentioned in this document are indicated by having motivation D. However, the same motivation has been given to some taxa for the following exclusive or additional reasons: a) the amphibians Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea and Rana dalmatina and the bat Pipisrellus kuhli have been recorded by the CORINE-Biotopes Project; b) the snake Coluber gemonensis, is Balkan endemic; c) the hare Lepus europeaus is generally rare throughout Greece because of hunting. Also, the case of the Alpine Newt, Triturus alpestris, is of particular importance since this animal has been found in a few mountainous localities in northern Peloponnisos, which is the southernmost area of the species' distribution range. Certain birds of prey are most considerable elements of the site's avifauna. Among them are sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), buzzards (B. buteo) and the falcons Falco tinnunculus and F. peregrinus. The last of these is considered a threatened species in Greece classified as "Insufficiently Known". The invertebrate species listed in section 3.3 with motivation D are protected by the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981. Pieris ergane is also included in the "Listing of biotopes in Europe according to their significance for invertebrates".

Κίνδυνοι

Απειλές/διαταραχές
Σχόλιο για τις απειλές-διαταραχές
Τρωτότητα The gradual stripping of vegetation on Mt. Panachaiko from overgrazing has facilitated the erosion of its unstable soil. The largest part of the mountain is bare and the intensive erosion causes extensive habitat alteration and destruction. It is the least forested mountain of all the Peloponnesian mountains. Overgrazing is also one of the major threats to the unique plant associations, especially the open stepped grasslands, which are characterized by the presence of many endemic species. Many habitats of this site are variously affected by human activities, mainly the stock forming of sheep, goats and cows, which has certainly influenced floristic composition and distribution. Expanding road networks, as well as illegal house building threatens the special ecological characteristics of the mountainous landscape of Panachaiko. Loggings, residential motorcycling and the presence of radio and TV transmission antennas are sources of habitat damage and disturbance. Hunting and shooting are the main reasons for the decline of bird and hare populations.
Προτεραιότητα προστασίας

Πανίδα και Χλωρίδα

Χαρακτηριστικά Ενδιαιτήματα
Αξιόλογα Φυτά
Abies cephalonica (Κεφαλλονίτικο έλατο)
Achillea umbellata monocephala
Anthemis brachmannii (Ανθεμίδα του Μπράτσμαν)
Anthemis cretica cretica
Arabis subflava
Astragalus sempervirens cerhalonicus
Aurinia moreana
Centaurea raphanina mixta
Cerastium candidissimum
Cirsium hypopsilum
Crocus boryi
Crocus hadriaticus
Dianthus androsaceus
Dianthus biflorus
Dianthus tymphresteus
Erysimum cephalonicum
Erysimum pectinatum
Erysimum pusillum
Festuca jeanpertii
Fritillaria graeca
Galium peloponnesiacum
Geocaryum peloponnesiacum
Onobrychis ebenoides
Scorzonera crocifolia
Teucrium aroanium (Τεύκριο των Αροανίων)
Thlaspi graecum
Trinia frigida
Αξιόλογα Θηλαστικά
Lepus europaeus carpathous (Λαγός της Καρπάθου)
Martes foina (Κουνάβι)
Meles meles (Ασβός)
Mustela nivalis galinthias (Νυφίτσα)
Pipistrellus kuhli kuhli (Λευκονυχτερίδα)
Rhinolophus hipposideros (Μικρορινόλοφος)
Talpa caeca (Τυφλοσπάλακας)
Αξιόλογα Πτηνά
Αξιόλογα Αμφίβια / Ερπετά
Bufo bufo bufo (Χωματόφρυνος)
Bufo viridis viridis (Πρασινόφρυνος)
Coluber gemonensis gemonensis
Coluber najadum dahlii (Σαΐτα του Νταλ)
Elaphe quatuorlineata quatuorlineata (Λαφίτης)
Elaphe situla (Σπιτόφιδο)
Emys orbicularis (Βαλτοχελώνα)
Hyla arborea arborea (Δεντροβάτραχος)
Lacerta trilineata cariensis (Τρανόσαυρα της Ικαρίας)
Malpolon monspessulanus insignitus (Σαπίτης)
Natrix natrix persa (Ντρόφιδο το Περσικό)
Podarcis muralis albanica (Αλβανική γουστέρα)
Podarcis peloponnesiaca lais (Γουστέρα της Βόρειας Πελοποννήσου)
Rana dalmatina (Ευκίνητος Βάτραχος)
Rana graeca (Ελληνικός Βάτραχος)
Salamandra salamandra salamandra (Σαλαμάνδρα)
Testudo hermanni hermanni (Ονυχοχελώνα)
Testudo marginata (Κρασπεδωτή χελώνα)
Triturus alpestris alpestris(t.a. veluchiensis) (Αλπικός Τρίτωνας)
Vipera ammodytes meridionalis (Οχιά)
Αξιόλογα Ψάρια
Αξιόλογα Ασπόνδυλα
Pieris ergane (Πιερίς η Εργάνη)
Σχόλια για τα είδη