NatureBank - Βιότοπος NATURA - AMVRAKIKOS KOLPOS, DELTA LOUROU KAI ARACHTHOU (PETRA, MYTIKAS, EVRYTERI PERIOCHI)

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Επίπεδα τόπων:
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Κτηματολόγιο Α.Ε.

Γενικά Στοιχεία

Όνομα AMVRAKIKOS KOLPOS, DELTA LOUROU KAI ARACHTHOU (PETRA, MYTIKAS, EVRYTERI PERIOCHI)
Κατηγορία Τόπου Βιότοπος NATURA
Κωδικός Τόπου GR2110001
Κύριος Χαρακτήρας
Βιότοπος
Φυσικό Τοπίο
Δομημένο Τοπίο
Διοικητική Υποδιαίρεση Νομός Αρτας
Δήμος-Κοινότητα
Συνολική Έκταση (ha) 28787.56
Χερσαία Έκταση (ha) 12468.95
Συνολική Περίμετρος (km) 164.3
Μέγιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 508.0
Ελάχιστο Υψόμετρο (m)
Ένταξη στο Υπάρχον Θεσμικό Πλαίσιο

Χαρακτηριστικά

Τύπος Τοπίου
Κλίμα
Γεωλογία
Περιγραφή Τόπου The examined area constitutes a complex ecosystem consisting from the double delta of Louros and Arachthos rivers, a lagoon system composed of three major lagoons (Rodia, Tsoukalio, Logarou) and some smaller ones, as well as a sea zone just south of them. The whole delta covers in the whole site an area about 450 km2. The total area of the lagoons is approximately 64 km2. Variable habitats charaterize the studied area. Dense and extensive reed communities (Phragmitetum) cover a large terrestrial part of the site and can be differentiated in a major area along the Louros and in many small areas in the eastern sector. Close to the reed-belts, stands of Scirpetum maritimi as well as patches of Nymphaea alba and Iris pseudacorus occur. Few stands of gallery woodlands have remained in the Louros-Arachthos double delta. The maquis vegetation covers small area with main distribution on the surrounding hills. The single true evergreen woodland is found in the peninsula of Koronisia, while the last remaining stands of deciduous woodland are found on the northeast of the Mavrovouni hill and according to their species composition belong to the Coccifero-Carpinetum community.
Κατάσταση Τόπου
Εγκατάλειψη οικισμών
Τάση Κατάστασης Τόπου
Ιστορία και εξέλιξη του τόπου
Σημεία με καλή Θέα
Μονοπάτια Περίπατοι

Αξίες

Οικολογική Αξία
Κοινωνικοοικονομική/πολιτιστική Αξία
Αισθητική Αξία
Σχόλιο για τις αξίες It is one of the best conserved ecosystems with high ecological value at both national and international level. In it we can find at least all elements of a typical natural Mediterranean delta. The habitat types that are in a very good ecological condition and cover large areas are the wet meadows of Juncus and the halophytic communities of the class Arthrocnemetalia. The halophilous vegetation covers an area of 43km2 and apart from Acheloos delta and the delta complex near Thessaloniki, this is the largest delta complex throughout Greece.The Tsoukalio lagoon is one of the largest of its kind not only in Greece but in the entire Mediterranean region. The major reed-bed area on the Louros can be considered as one of the largest coherent reed-beds in Greece, and the deciduous woodland on the Mavrovouni hill represents a system comparatively rare in Greece. In addition to the endemic plant species cited in section 3.3 some interesting plant taxa listed in section 3.3 with motivation D, occur in the site area. These are: a) Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus angustifolia, the populations in Greece of which are very degraded and must be protected, b) Spirodela polyrhiza species apparently not common in Greece, and c) Salvinia natans and Cotula coronopifolia, which are scattered in Greece. Salvia natans additionally recieves motivation D since it is protected by the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981, and is also listed in the WCMC Plants Database as "Endangered". It is well known that the Greek delta areas are very rich ecosystems. This is particularly evident from the fauna of this site which is very diverse and abundant. Several vertebrate taxa (other than birds) have been recorded from this site. Some of them are listed in Annex II of the Direcetive 92/43/EEC (section 3.2) and some remaining taxa are considered Other Important Important Species (section 3.3). It should be noted here that taking the opinion of Economidis (pers. comm.) into consideration, we include under the fish names of Phoxinellus spp., Cobitis taenia the following valid Greek taxa respectively (Economidis, 1991) Psuedophoxinus stymphalicus and C. hellenica. Among the taxa of sections 3.3, four are threatened in Greece indicated by motivation A (the water shrew Neomys anomalus, the dormouse Dryomys nitedula wingei, the jackal Canis aureus, and the dolphin Delphinus delphis). Most of the taxa from these two sections are protected by the Bern Convention therefore receiving the C motivation (the only exceptions are the hedgehog Erinaceus concolor, the harvest mouse Micromys minutus, the rock mouse Apodemus mystacimus epimelas, the vole Microtus thomasi and the jackal Canis aureus). The dolphin Delphinus delphis is given the C motivation for the additional reason that it is included in the lists of the CITES Convention. Moreover, most of the 37 taxa are protected by the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981 thus being eligible for motivation D (in this case the exceptions are the frogs Rana epeirotica, R. ridibunda, the lizards Ophisaurus apodus, Ablepharus kitaibelii, the snake Vipera ammodytes, the small mammals Neomys anomalus, Micromys minutus, Apodemus mystacinus epimelas, Microtus thomasi, the jackal Canis aureus, the marten Martes foina and the badger Meles meles). The D motivation is also allocated to: a) the anurans Bufo viridis, Hyla arborea, Rana dalmatina, the lizard Ablepharus kitaibelii, the snake Natrix tessellata and the dolphin Delphinus delphis, since these taxa are mentioned in the handbook of the CORINE-Biotopes Project, and b) the newt Triturus vulgaris graecus, the frog Rana epeirotica, the lizards Algyroides nigropunctatus, Podarcis erhardii, P. taurica ionica, and the small mammals Micromys minutus, Apodemus mystacinus epimelas, Microtus thomasi, since they are all Balkan endemics. The invertebrate species listed in section 3.3 with motivation D are protected by the Greek Presidential Decree 67/1981, except Everes argiades which is included in the list of "Threatened Rhopalocera (butterflies) of Europe. Pieris krueperi is also included in this list.

Κίνδυνοι

Απειλές/διαταραχές
Σχόλιο για τις απειλές-διαταραχές
Τρωτότητα The halophilous vegetation is threatened by dam building. The meadows with Juncus are threatened because of grazing, over-fertilization, burning and drainage. The gallery woodlands seem to be the most intensely affected ecosystem. Another important reason for their reduction is the continuous tree-felling. Only a smal percentage of their original extension remains and a small part of them is still capable for regeneration. A further, much larger area has lost any chance of survival. This part can be viewed as a declining relict incapable of regeneration. Continuous relocation of the gravel beds prevents the gallery woodlands from regenerating in these areas. Furthermore, significant reason for the restriction of the gallery forest is the enlargement of the agricultural land in the area. The illegal hunting, the extra roads and dams constructions, the installation of elecric wires, the arbitrary building in the wider area are the activities which contribute in thε downgrading of the area. The maquis vegetation is very degraded as a result of grazing and wood-felling. The most important sources of water pollution of the rivers and the lagoons are the domestic and industrial sewage as well as the existence of slaughter-yard in the area. The intensified land cultivation accompanied by the overuse of pesticides and fertilizers comprises the main threat for the local fauna. It is sure that without a carefully planned and strictly enforced protection programme, eutrophication and pollution of water masses will be soon visible and will produce serious damages in many animal communities of this delicate delta ecosystem, even in the extensive fish culture units existing in the large lagoons of the site.
Προτεραιότητα προστασίας

Πανίδα και Χλωρίδα

Χαρακτηριστικά Ενδιαιτήματα
Αξιόλογα Φυτά
Alnus glutinosa (Κλήθρο)
Cotula coronopifolia
Fraxinus angustifolia oxycarpa (Νερόφραξος)
Salvinia natans
Silene ungeri
Spirodela polyrhiza
Αξιόλογα Θηλαστικά
Canis aureus moreoticus (Τσακάλι)
Delphinus delphis (Δελφίνι)
Dryomys nitedula wingei (Δεντρομυωξός)
Lutra lutra (Βίδρα)
Martes foina (Κουνάβι)
Martes martes (Δεντροκούναβο)
Meles meles (Ασβός)
Monachus monachus (Μεσογειακή φώκια)
Mustela nivalis galinthias (Νυφίτσα)
Neomys anomalus milleri (Βαλτομυγαλή)
Sciurus vulgaris ameliae (Σκίουρος Αμέλιος)
Tursiops truncatus (Ρινοδέλφινο)
Αξιόλογα Πτηνά
Accipiter brevipes (Σαΐνι)
Accipiter gentilis butoides (Διπλοσάινο)
Accipiter nisus nisus (Τσιχλογέρακο)
Acrocephalus arundinaceus (Τσιχλοποταμίδα)
Acrocephalus melanopogon (Μουστακοποταμίδα)
Acrocephalus schoenobaenus (Βουρλοποταμίδα)
Acrocephalus scirpaceus (Καλαμοποταμίδα)
Actitis hypoleucos (Ποταμότριγγας)
Alauda arvensis arvensis (Σταρήθρα)
Alcedo atthis (Αλκυόνα)
Anas acuta (Ψαλίδα)
Anas clypeata (Χουλιαρόπαπια)
Anas crecca (Κιρκίρι)
Anas penelope (Σφυριχτάρι)
Anas platyrhynchos (Πρασινοκέφαλη)
Anas querquedula (Σαρσέλα)
Anas strepera (Καπακλής)
Anser albifrons (Ασπρομέτωπη χήνα)
Anser anser anser (Σταχτόχηνα)
Anthus campestris campestris (Χαμοκελάδα)
Anthus pratensis pratensis (Λιβαδοκελάδα)
Anthus spinoletta littoralis (Νεροκελάδα …)
Anthus trivialis trivialis (Δενδροκελάδα)
Apus apus apus (Σταχτάρα)
Apus melba melba (Σκεπαρνάς)
Aquila chrysaetos chrysaetos (Χρυσαητός)
Aquila clanga (Στικταητός)
Aquila pomarina (Κραυγαητός)
Ardea cinerea (Σταχτοτσικνιάς)
Ardea purpurea (Πορφυροτσικνιάς)
Ardeola ralloides (Κρυπτοτσικνιάς)
Arenaria interpres (Χαλικοκυλιστής)
Asio flammeus (Βαλτόμπουφος)
Aythya ferina (Γκισάρι)
Aythya fuligula (Μαυροκέφαλη)
Aythya nyroca (Βαλτόπαπια)
Botaurus stellaris (Ηταυρος)
Bubo bubo bubo (Μπούφος)
Bubulcus ibis (Γελαδάρης)
Burhinus oedicnemus oedicnemus (Πετροτριλίδα)
Buteo buteo buteo (Γερακίνα)
Buteo rufinus rufinus (Αητογερακίνα)
Calandrella brachydactyla (Μικρογαλιάντρα)
Calidris alba (Λευκοσκαλήθρα)
Calidris alpina alpina (Λασποσκαλήθρα)
Calidris ferruginea (Δρεπανοσκάληθρα)
Calidris minuta (Νανοσκαλήθρα)
Calidris temminckii (Σταχτοσκαλήθρα)
Caprimulgus europaeus (Γυδοβυζάχτρα)
Cercotrichas galactotes (Κουφαηδόνι)
Charadrius alexandrinus (Θαλασσοσφυριχτής)
Charadrius dubius (Ποταμοσφυριχτής)
Charadrius hiaticula (Αμμοσφυριχτής)
Chlidonias hybridus (Μουστακογλάρονο)
Chlidonias leucopterus (Αργυρογλάρονο)
Chlidonias niger (Μαυρογλάρονο)
Ciconia ciconia (Λευκοπελαργός)
Circaetus gallicus (Φιδαητός)
Circus aeruginosus (Καλαμόκιρκος)
Circus cyaneus (Βαλτόκιρκος)
Circus pygargus (Λιβαδόκιρκος)
Cisticola juncidis juncidis (Κιστικόλη (Ντουλαπάρης))
Clangula hyemalis (Χιονόπαπια)
Coccothraustes coccothraustes (Κοκκοθραύστης)
Coracias garrulus (Χαλκοκουρούνα)
Coturnix coturnix (Ορτύκι)
Cuculus canorus (Κούκος)
Cygnus cygnus (Αγριόκυκνος)
Cygnus olor (Κύκνος)
Delichon urbica urbica (Σπιτοχελίδονο)
Dendrocopos medius medius (Μεσοτσικλητάρα)
Egretta alba (Αργυροτσικνιάς)
Egretta garzetta (Λευκοτσικνιάς)
Emberiza caesia (Σκουρόβλαχος)
Emberiza melanocephala (Αμπελουργός)
Emberiza pusilla (Νανοτσίχλονο)
Emberiza schoeniclus intermedia (Καλαμοτσίχλονο)
Erithacus rubecula balcanica (Κοκκινολαίμης των Βαλκανίων)
Falco biarmicus feldeggi (Χρυσογέρακο)
Falco columbarius (Νανογέρακο)
Falco eleonorae (Μαυροπετρίτης)
Falco naumanni (Κιρκινέζι)
Falco peregrinus brookei (Πετρίτης)
Falco subbuteo (Δεντρογέρακο)
Falco vespertinus (Μαυροκιρκίνεζο)
Ficedula albicollis (Κρικομυγοχάφτης)
Ficedula semitorquata (Δρυομυγοχάφτης)
Fringilla coelebs coelebs (Σπίνος)
Fulica atra (Φαλαρίδα)
Gallinago gallinago (Μεκατσίνι)
Gallinago media (Διπλομπεκάτσινο)
Gavia arctica arctica (Λαμπροβούτι)
Gavia stellata stellata (Κηλιδοβούτι)
Gelochelidon nilotica (Γελογλάρονο)
Glareola pratincola (Νεροχελίδονο)
Gyps fulvus (Όρνιο)
Haematopus ostralegus (Στρειδοφάγος)
Haliaeetus albicilla (Θαλασσαητός)
Hieraaetus fasciatus (Σπιζαητός)
Hieraaetus pennatus (Σταυραητός)
Himantopus himantopus (Καλαμοκανάς)
Hippolais olivetorum (Λιοστριτσίδα)
Hippolais pallida elaeica (Ωχροστριτσίδα)
Hirundo daurica rufula (Δεντροχελίδονο)
Hirundo rustica rustica (Χελιδόνι)
Hoplopterus spinosus (Αγκαθοκαλημάνα)
Ixobrychus minutus (Μικροτσικνιάς)
Jynx torquilla torquilla (Στραβολαίμης)
Lanius collurio collurio (Αητόμαχος)
Lanius excubitor excubitor (Διπλοκεφαλάς)
Lanius minor (Γαϊδουροκεφαλάς)
Lanius senator senator (Κοκκινοκέφαλος)
Larus audouinii (Αιγαιόγλαρος)
Larus canus canus (Θυελόγλαρος)
Larus genei (Λεπτόραμφος γλάρος)
Larus melanocephalus (Μαυροκέφαλος γλάρος)
Larus minutus (Νανόγλαρος)
Larus ridibundus (Καστανοκέφαλος γλάρος)
Limosa limosa limosa (Λιμόζα)
Locustella fluviatilis (Ποταμοτριλιστής)
Locustella luscinioides (Καλαμοτριλιστής)
Lullula arborea arborea (Δεντροσταρήθρα)
Luscinia megarhynchos (Αηδόνι)
Melanitta fusca (Βελουδόπαπια)
Mergus serrator (Σκουφοπρίστης)
Merops apiaster (Μελισσοφάγος)
Milvus migrans aegypticus (Τσίφτης Αιγυπτιακός)
Motacilla alba alba (Λευκοσουσουράδα)
Motacilla cinerea (Σταχτοσουσουράδα)
Motacilla flava beema (Κιτρινοσουσουράδα)
Muscicapa striata neumanni (Σταχτομυγοχάφτης)
Neophron percnopterus (Ασπροπάρης)
Netta rufina (Φερεντίνι)
Numenius arquata arquata (Τουρλίδα)
Numenius phaeopus (Σιγλίγουρος)
Numenius tenuirostris (Στενόραμφη τουρλίδα)
Nycticorax nycticorax (Νυχτοκόρακας)
Oenanthe hispanica (Ασπροκώλα)
Oenanthe oenanthe oenanthe (Σταχτοπετρόκλης)
Oriolus oriolus oriolus (Συκοφάγος)
Otus scops (Γκιώνης)
Pandion haliaetus (Ψαραητός)
Panurus biarmicus biarmicus (Μουστακαλής)
Pelecanus crispus (Αργυλοπελεκάνος)
Pelecanus onocrotalus (Ροδοπελεκάνος)
Pernis apivorus (Σφηκιάρης)
Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (Κορμοράνος)
Phalacrocorax pygmeus (Λαγγόνα)
Philomachus pugnax (Μαχητής)
Phoenicopterus ruber roseus (Φοινικόπτερος)
Phoenicurus ochruros (Καρβουνιάρης)
Phoenicurus phoenicurus phoenicurus (Κοκκινονούρης)
Phylloscopus bonelli orientalis (Βουνοφυλλοσκόπος)
Phylloscopus collybita abietinus (Δενδροφυλλοσκόπος των ελάτων)
Phylloscopus sibilatrix (Δασοφυλλοσκόπος)
Phylloscopus trochilus acredula (Θαμνοφυλλοσκόπος)
Platalea leucorodia (Χουλιαρομύτα)
Plegadis falcinellus
Pluvialis squatarola (Αργυροβροχοπούλι)
Podiceps auritus auritus (Χειμωνοβροχοπούλι)
Podiceps cristatus (Σκουροβουτηχτάρι)
Podiceps nigricollis (Μαυροβουτηχτάρι)
Prunella modularis (Θαμνοψάλτης)
Recurvirostra avosetta (Αβοκέττα)
Riparia riparia riparia (Οχθοχελίδονο)
Saxicola rubetra (Καστανολαίμης)
Scolopax rusticola (Μπεκάτσα)
Sterna albifrons (Νανογλάρονο)
Sterna caspia (Καρατζάς)
Sterna hirundo (Ποταμογλάρονο)
Sterna sandvicensis (Χειμωνογλάρονο)
Streptopelia turtur (Τριγώνι)
Sturnus vulgaris tauricus (Ψαρόνι του Ταύρου)
Sylvia atricapilla (Μαυροσκούφης)
Sylvia cantillans albistriata (Κοκκινοτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia communis communis (Θαμνοτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia curruca curruca (Λαλοτσιροβάκος)
Sylvia hortensis crassirostris (Δεντροτσιροβάκος)
Tachybaptus ruficollis (Νανοβουτηχτάρι)
Tadorna ferruginea (Καστανόχηνα)
Tadorna tadorna (Βαρβάρα)
Tringa erythropus (Μαυρότριγγας)
Tringa glareola (Λασπότριγγας)
Tringa nebularia (Πρασινοσκέλης)
Tringa ochropus (Δασότριγγας)
Tringa stagnatilis (Βαλτότριγγας)
Tringa totanus totanus (Κοκκινοσκέλης)
Turdus iliacus iliacus (Κοκκινότσιχλα)
Turdus philomelos (Τσίχλα)
Turdus pilaris (Κεδρότσιχλα)
Upupa epops epops (Τσαλαπετεινός)
Vanellus vanellus (Καλημάνα)
Αξιόλογα Αμφίβια / Ερπετά
Ablepharus kitaibelii fabichi (Αβλέφαρος)
Algyroides nigropunctatus (Κερκυραϊκή σαύρα)
Anguis fragilis colchicus (Κονάκι)
Bufo bufo bufo (Χωματόφρυνος)
Bufo viridis viridis (Πρασινόφρυνος)
Caretta caretta caretta (Χελώνα καρέττα)
Coluber najadum dahlii (Σαΐτα του Νταλ)
Elaphe quatuorlineata quatuorlineata (Λαφίτης)
Elaphe situla (Σπιτόφιδο)
Emys orbicularis (Βαλτοχελώνα)
Hemidactylus turcicus turcicus (Σαμιαμίδι)
Hyla arborea arborea (Δεντροβάτραχος)
Lacerta trilineata cariensis (Τρανόσαυρα της Ικαρίας)
Lacerta viridis meridionalis (Πρασινόσαυρα η …)
Malpolon monspessulanus insignitus (Σαπίτης)
Mauremys caspica rivulata (Ποταμοχελώνα)
Natrix natrix persa (Ντρόφιδο το Περσικό)
Natrix tessellata tessellata (Κυβόφιδο)
Ophisaurus apodus thracius (Τυφλίτης)
Podarcis erhardii amorgensis (Σιλιβούτι της Αμοργού)
Podarcis muralis albanica (Αλβανική γουστέρα)
Rana dalmatina (Ευκίνητος Βάτραχος)
Rana graeca (Ελληνικός Βάτραχος)
Rana ridibunda ridibunda (Λιμνοβάτραχος Δ. Ελλάδας)
Testudo hermanni hermanni (Ονυχοχελώνα)
Testudo marginata (Κρασπεδωτή χελώνα)
Vipera ammodytes meridionalis (Οχιά)
Αξιόλογα Ψάρια
Gasterosteus aculeatus (Αγκαθερό)
Valencia letourneuxi (Ζουρνάς)
Αξιόλογα Ασπόνδυλα
Σχόλια για τα είδη