NatureBank - Βιότοπος NATURA - OROS PILIO KAI PARAKTIA THALASSIA ZONI

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Γενικά Στοιχεία

Όνομα OROS PILIO KAI PARAKTIA THALASSIA ZONI
Κατηγορία Τόπου Βιότοπος NATURA
Κωδικός Τόπου GR1430001
Κύριος Χαρακτήρας
Βιότοπος
Φυσικό Τοπίο
Δομημένο Τοπίο
Διοικητική Υποδιαίρεση Νομός Μαγνησίας
Δήμος-Κοινότητα
Συνολική Έκταση (ha) 31112.16
Χερσαία Έκταση (ha) 28904.55
Συνολική Περίμετρος (km) 82.6
Μέγιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 1604.0
Ελάχιστο Υψόμετρο (m)
Ένταξη στο Υπάρχον Θεσμικό Πλαίσιο

Χαρακτηριστικά

Τύπος Τοπίου
Κλίμα
Γεωλογία
Περιγραφή Τόπου Mount Pilion (1627 m, Pourianos Stavros) is situated at eastern Thessaly. Its spine runs among Pagasitikos gulf in the south and the Agean all along the north-east. The site is delimited by the contour of 400 to 500 m in the south over the town of Volos and Pagasitikos gulf, down to Platanorema stream, and by the contour of 500 m further north, up to the borders with mount Mavrovouni; in the north-east, the mount falls to the Aegean. The marine area covers about 6% of the site. The mountain has a sharp relief, also characterized by its bordering the Aegean Sea. The climate is Mediterranean, having few or no days of frost and three to four dry months annualy. The southern slopes are drier (504 mm annual rainfall at Volos station) and the north eastern slopes and summits are more humid (920 mm annual rainfall, at Pouri station), a fact reflected on the vegetation. The rocks of the greater part of the site (around 70%) are schists (phyllite and gneiss) with serpentines in the south east and there are also three calcareous areas (around 30% of the site). Regarding the vegetation zones, Fagion moesiacae (Fagetalia) ranges from 1600 m to 1000 m, in the south and to 600 m in the east; Quercion frainetto (para-mediterranean zone) down to 400 m (south) and 300 m (east); Quercion ilicis (eu-mediterranean zone) down to 250 m (south) and sea level (east), while at the borders with Mavrovouni (southern Mavrovouni) Q. ilicis is replaced by Ostryo-Carpinion orientalis, from 500 m down to sea level, in the east.Fagus moesiaca forms a thick forest with excellent structure, the prevalent vegetation at higher altitudes along the centre of the mountain. The beech forest, with charecteristic species Luzula sylvatica, Festuca drymeia, Silene multicaulis ssp. genistifolia, Solidago virgaurea, Orthilia secunda, Calaminthe grandiflora and Euphorbia heldreichii, is represented in 3.1. by the code 9110 (although the later corresponds to CORINE 91 code 41.11, i.e. Luzulu-Fagenion with Fagus sylvatica).Quercus frainetto woods are formed in the north (described by 9280 in section 3.3.; it is a pure Q. frainetto forest, Corine 91 code 41.75), and Castanea sativa woods (sweet chestnut) mainly on the eastern flank and in the south, under the Fagus forest.In the east, over the Aegean, and to the south Quercus ilex maquis (Adrachno-Quercetum ilicis, Corine 32.313) flank the forests with Erica arborea (formations of taller shrubs, with Arbutus unedo, Pyrus amygdaliformis, Phillyrea latifolia, Quercus coccifera, etc) and E. manipuliflora (formations of lower shrubs), reaching to the rocky coasts or just above the olive orchards. In few undisturbed areas, Quercus ilex forest is formed above the maquis, but in most areas the formation of a forest is prevented by the use of the land for hay and by burning.In the west and on the southern slopes over Volos, where there also are grazed areas, there is Quercus coccifera and Juniperus oxycedrus pseudomaquis (CORINE 32.7).Garrigues with E. manipuliflora, Cistus salvifolius, and Sarcopoterium spinosum are formed at lower altitudes of the southern part of the mountain.Platanus orientalis formations and Alnus glutinosa (greek alder, CORINE 91 code 44.514) riparian galleries are found at the several intermitent rivers and streams at both sides of the mountain.There are also Populus tremula formations (CORINE 91 41D3 41D4) and Salix caprea.The coastline over the Aegean is indended, with cliffs and rocks and small sandy beaches formed at the bays, while partly submerged caves are formed at places.The human presence is evident all over the site, except from the central mountainous area, at high altitudes and from the steep, rocky Aegean coasts, but it is more intense at the southern part which is more accessible.There are picturesque villages, cultivations and a road network. Extended cultivated areas exist at the southern slopes mainly over Pagasitikos and, smaller ones, at the central part of the site mainly on the slopes over the sea. Most characreristic are the orchards, mainly with apple trees (that constitute a main source of income), but also with walnut, almond, cherry, peach and pear trees. There are also vineyards and olive orchards. Land use is mainly done in traditional ways, even when more intensive and assisted by modern means, due to the rugged relief of most of the site. NOTES9340 is used to describe both Quercus ilex maquis and forest.NOTE ON FAGUS1. Strid A. 1986. Mountain Flora of Greece, 1:51. In Greece there is Fagus sylvatica ssp. sylvatica (above 1000 m in Greek mainland southwards to Oxia and Pilion). F. sylvatica ssp. orientalis is a closely related subspecies and intermediate froms (often called F. moesiaca) occur where the two subspecies meet (e.g., Balkan peninsula). Typical F. sylvatica ssp. sylvatica is found in western and central districts above 1000 m, while intermediate forms resembling F. sylvatica ssp. orientalis occur below 1000 m.2. Med-Checklist 3:225. Three subspecies of Fagus sylvatica are recognized, ssp. sylvatica, ssp. moesiaca and ssp. orientalis, all occuring in Greece (Gr).3. Flora Europaea, 1:72. Two subsepcies of Fagus sylvatica are recognized, ssp. sylvatica and ssp. orientalis, both occuring in Greece. Fagus moesiaca is considered an intermediate form between the two subspecies.
Κατάσταση Τόπου
Εγκατάλειψη οικισμών
Τάση Κατάστασης Τόπου
Ιστορία και εξέλιξη του τόπου
Σημεία με καλή Θέα
Μονοπάτια Περίπατοι

Αξίες

Οικολογική Αξία
Κοινωνικοοικονομική/πολιτιστική Αξία
Αισθητική Αξία
Σχόλιο για τις αξίες Ecological, economic, historical, cultural and aesthetic parameters constitute the quality and importance of Mount Pelion.Its ecological value lies on the variety of well structured and well conserved biotopes which support species rich communities. Its is a site that combines heavy afforestation -decidous and wet forests- and well developed Mediterranean maquis with the coastal and marine habitats of the Aegean.The area sustains a flora rich in common species (a fact acknowledged since antiquity, particularly regarding herbs) and also includes rare and endemic species. Notably, Soldanella pelia is a species endemic to Pilio while Dianthus haematocalyx ssp. pruinosus, is a stenoendemic, found only at low altitudes near Pelion and Veronica urticifolia and Centaurea attica ssp. drakiensis and Viola rausii are endemic to Eastern Thessaly. Also, Populus tremula, Salix caprea and Carex punctata are species rather rare in in Greece.Viola tricolor ssp. macedonica is a balkan endemic (Greece, Albania)The fauna ia also interesting. The invertebrate fauna is rich in rare and endemic species such as Lucanus cervus (listed on section 3.2.f.). In addition, the area hosts a number of rare and protected amphibians and reptiles.Finally, it should be noted that the caves of the Aegean coasts of Pelion shelter a significant population of the monk seal.The economic value of the site lies on two wealth producing resourses: cultivation, including mainly olives and apples but also other Rosaceae and flowers; and tourism. These two activities support and the villages and local communities of the area, providing an attraction to young people.Mount Pelion and the surrounding area have been continuously inhabited since ancient years and have a long history and culture, its traces found in greek mythology. The picturesque villages maintain the local traditional architecture, being in harmony with the environment. This fact and the combination of the thriving green mountainous landscape with the blue Aegean seashores consitute the rare aesthetic value of the site.In conclusion, Pelion is a place which maintains a well conserved natural environment and at the same time supports a significant number of inhabitants; its is a most appropriate candidate for the application of the sustainable development ideal. Global and nature-conservation sensitive planning and management of the whole area, regarding, however, the human presence as part of the environment, is needed so that Pelion will go on thriving.OTHER IMPORTANT SPECIES WITH MOTIVATION DPlants: The following endemic species are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and are included in the IUCN Red Data List (1993) in the category of threatened plants: Alkanna pelia (rare), Campanula incurva (rare).Centaurea attica ssp. drakiensis protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81).Siphonostegia syriaca is included in the IUCN Red Data List (1993) in the category of threatened plants characterized as rare in Greece and its World status is unknown.Veronica urticifolia IUCN Rare, Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81);Crocus veluchensis, Sideritis raeseri ssp. raeseri, Dianthus viscidus, Dianthus gracilis ssp. gracilis, Crocus sieberi ssp. sublimis, Digitalis laevigata, Erysimum pusillum ssp. microstylum, Helleborus cyclophyllus are balkan endemics.Campanula trichocalycina (=Asyneuma trichocalycinum) is a species with distribution Balkan peninsula, Sicily, Italy and rather rare with scattered localities in Greece. Euphorbia amygdaloides ssp. heldreichii is endemic to Greece and S. Albania. Lilium chalcedonicum (= Lilium heldreichii) is endemic to Greece and S. Albania with decreasing mountainous populations. Silene fabaria is a species of Central Greece and of the Aegean occurring only in Anatolia out of Greece. Sideritis scardica is endemic to NC, NE Greece and S former Jugoslavia. Anthemis cretica ssp. cretica is a Balkan endemic (it currently includes the species A. panachaica and A. meteorica which are included in the IUCN list of threatened plants as rare and are protected by the Greek Law -Presidential decree 67/81). Carlina frigida is a balkan endemic found in S. & C. Greece probably extending to Albania and SW former Jugoslavia. Ornithogalum oligophyllum is a species with distribution in the Balkan peninsula and Anatolia.Invertebrates:Chrysomela gypsophilae and Agrodiaetus admetus admetus are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81). Syricthus tesselum (=Muschampia tesselum) s protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81), significant and vulnerable species (Koomen & van Helsdingen, 1993; Dabrowski). Pieris krueperi is protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81), a rare species of Pieridae (Dabrowski).Erynnis marloyi, Gegenes nostradamus are considered rare species of Hesperidae (Dabrowski).Thersamonia thersamon, Heodes alciphron, Scolitantides orion, Everes alcetas, Everes argiades are considered rare species of Lycaenidae (Koomen & van Helsdingen, 1993; Dabrowski).Pieris ergane is protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81), considered a significant and threatened species in Europe, included in CORINE checklist of threatened invertebrates.Mammals: Capreolus capreolus: Cited in the Red Data Book of the threatened vertebrates of Greece as a vulnerable species. Also included in the annexes III of the Bern Convention, and V of the Directive 92/43/EC. Meles meles, Martes foina, Lepus europaeus and Sus scrofa are protected by the Bern Convention (annex III). Erinaceus concolor is protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81).

Κίνδυνοι

Απειλές/διαταραχές
Σχόλιο για τις απειλές-διαταραχές
Τρωτότητα Ecological balances on mount Pelion have been evolved under the human influence since ancient years. There are totally undisturbed or minimally disturbed areas, mainly the high altitude forests and coasts, and there are areas where the established relationships incorporate the influence of human activities, such as grazing, cultivation, logging, fishing and building. The main threat for the environment is the expansion of human activities and uncontrolled development which impose increasingly heavy pressures on the ecosystems. Tourism development does not yet constitute a threat to the environment; nevertheless it should be controlled and directed towards environment-friendly activities (ecotourism). Road building, essential both for the life quality of the local communities (transportation of products, access to health facilities, etc) and for tourism should be done with careful planning. Traditional cultivation methods had always been in accordance with the environment; modern techniques for intensive cultures should be controlled and the use of pesticides and insecticides should be restricted and biological methods applied (such efforts are already being made, but very locally). The introduction of foreign varieties of fruits trees (mainly apple trees) which are susceptible to disease has increased the use of herbicides, a fact that has led to water pollution locally.
Προτεραιότητα προστασίας

Πανίδα και Χλωρίδα

Χαρακτηριστικά Ενδιαιτήματα
Αξιόλογα Φυτά
Alkanna pelia
Anthemis cretica cretica
Bolanthus thessalus
Campanula incurva
Centaurea attica drakiensis
Centaurea pelia
Cerastium candidissimum
Crocus veluchensis
Dianthus haematocalyx pruinosus
Lilium chalcedonicum
Sideritis scardica
Silene fabaria domocina
Silene multicaulis genistifolia
Viola rausii
Αξιόλογα Θηλαστικά
Canis lupus (Λύκος)
Capreolus capreolus (Ζαρκάδι)
Felis silvestris morea (Αγριόγατος του Μωριά)
Lepus europaeus carpathous (Λαγός της Καρπάθου)
Martes foina (Κουνάβι)
Meles meles (Ασβός)
Monachus monachus (Μεσογειακή φώκια)
Sus scrofa (Αγριογούρουνο)
Αξιόλογα Πτηνά
Αξιόλογα Αμφίβια / Ερπετά
Ablepharus kitaibelii fabichi (Αβλέφαρος)
Elaphe situla (Σπιτόφιδο)
Emys orbicularis (Βαλτοχελώνα)
Hemidactylus turcicus turcicus (Σαμιαμίδι)
Lacerta trilineata cariensis (Τρανόσαυρα της Ικαρίας)
Lacerta viridis meridionalis (Πρασινόσαυρα η …)
Ophisaurus apodus thracius (Τυφλίτης)
Salamandra salamandra salamandra (Σαλαμάνδρα)
Telescopus fallax fallax (Αγιόφιδο)
Testudo hermanni hermanni (Ονυχοχελώνα)
Testudo marginata (Κρασπεδωτή χελώνα)
Typhlops vermicularis (Τυφλίνος)
Αξιόλογα Ψάρια
Αξιόλογα Ασπόνδυλα
Σχόλια για τα είδη