||Mount Pilion (1627 m, Pourianos Stavros) is situated at eastern Thessaly. Its spine runs among Pagasitikos gulf in the south and the Agean all along the north-east. The site is delimited by the contour of 400 to 500 m in the south over the town of Volos and Pagasitikos gulf, down to Platanorema stream, and by the contour of 500 m further north, up to the borders with mount Mavrovouni; in the north-east, the mount falls to the Aegean. The marine area covers about 6% of the site. The mountain has a sharp relief, also characterized by its bordering the Aegean Sea. The climate is Mediterranean, having few or no days of frost and three to four dry months annualy. The southern slopes are drier (504 mm annual rainfall at Volos station) and the north eastern slopes and summits are more humid (920 mm annual rainfall, at Pouri station), a fact reflected on the vegetation. The rocks of the greater part of the site (around 70%) are schists (phyllite and gneiss) with serpentines in the south east and there are also three calcareous areas (around 30% of the site). Regarding the vegetation zones, Fagion moesiacae (Fagetalia) ranges from 1600 m to 1000 m, in the south and to 600 m in the east; Quercion frainetto (para-mediterranean zone) down to 400 m (south) and 300 m (east); Quercion ilicis (eu-mediterranean zone) down to 250 m (south) and sea level (east), while at the borders with Mavrovouni (southern Mavrovouni) Q. ilicis is replaced by Ostryo-Carpinion orientalis, from 500 m down to sea level, in the east.Fagus moesiaca forms a thick forest with excellent structure, the prevalent vegetation at higher altitudes along the centre of the mountain. The beech forest, with charecteristic species Luzula sylvatica, Festuca drymeia, Silene multicaulis ssp. genistifolia, Solidago virgaurea, Orthilia secunda, Calaminthe grandiflora and Euphorbia heldreichii, is represented in 3.1. by the code 9110 (although the later corresponds to CORINE 91 code 41.11, i.e. Luzulu-Fagenion with Fagus sylvatica).Quercus frainetto woods are formed in the north (described by 9280 in section 3.3.; it is a pure Q. frainetto forest, Corine 91 code 41.75), and Castanea sativa woods (sweet chestnut) mainly on the eastern flank and in the south, under the Fagus forest.In the east, over the Aegean, and to the south Quercus ilex maquis (Adrachno-Quercetum ilicis, Corine 32.313) flank the forests with Erica arborea (formations of taller shrubs, with Arbutus unedo, Pyrus amygdaliformis, Phillyrea latifolia, Quercus coccifera, etc) and E. manipuliflora (formations of lower shrubs), reaching to the rocky coasts or just above the olive orchards. In few undisturbed areas, Quercus ilex forest is formed above the maquis, but in most areas the formation of a forest is prevented by the use of the land for hay and by burning.In the west and on the southern slopes over Volos, where there also are grazed areas, there is Quercus coccifera and Juniperus oxycedrus pseudomaquis (CORINE 32.7).Garrigues with E. manipuliflora, Cistus salvifolius, and Sarcopoterium spinosum are formed at lower altitudes of the southern part of the mountain.Platanus orientalis formations and Alnus glutinosa (greek alder, CORINE 91 code 44.514) riparian galleries are found at the several intermitent rivers and streams at both sides of the mountain.There are also Populus tremula formations (CORINE 91 41D3 41D4) and Salix caprea.The coastline over the Aegean is indended, with cliffs and rocks and small sandy beaches formed at the bays, while partly submerged caves are formed at places.The human presence is evident all over the site, except from the central mountainous area, at high altitudes and from the steep, rocky Aegean coasts, but it is more intense at the southern part which is more accessible.There are picturesque villages, cultivations and a road network. Extended cultivated areas exist at the southern slopes mainly over Pagasitikos and, smaller ones, at the central part of the site mainly on the slopes over the sea. Most characreristic are the orchards, mainly with apple trees (that constitute a main source of income), but also with walnut, almond, cherry, peach and pear trees. There are also vineyards and olive orchards. Land use is mainly done in traditional ways, even when more intensive and assisted by modern means, due to the rugged relief of most of the site. NOTES9340 is used to describe both Quercus ilex maquis and forest.NOTE ON FAGUS1. Strid A. 1986. Mountain Flora of Greece, 1:51. In Greece there is Fagus sylvatica ssp. sylvatica (above 1000 m in Greek mainland southwards to Oxia and Pilion). F. sylvatica ssp. orientalis is a closely related subspecies and intermediate froms (often called F. moesiaca) occur where the two subspecies meet (e.g., Balkan peninsula). Typical F. sylvatica ssp. sylvatica is found in western and central districts above 1000 m, while intermediate forms resembling F. sylvatica ssp. orientalis occur below 1000 m.2. Med-Checklist 3:225. Three subspecies of Fagus sylvatica are recognized, ssp. sylvatica, ssp. moesiaca and ssp. orientalis, all occuring in Greece (Gr).3. Flora Europaea, 1:72. Two subsepcies of Fagus sylvatica are recognized, ssp. sylvatica and ssp. orientalis, both occuring in Greece. Fagus moesiaca is considered an intermediate form between the two subspecies.