NatureBank - Βιότοπος NATURA - AISTHITIKO DASOS OSSAS

Στοιχεία Τόπου

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Κτηματολόγιο Α.Ε.

Γενικά Στοιχεία

Όνομα AISTHITIKO DASOS OSSAS
Κατηγορία Τόπου Βιότοπος NATURA
Κωδικός Τόπου GR1420003
Κύριος Χαρακτήρας
Βιότοπος
Φυσικό Τοπίο
Δομημένο Τοπίο
Διοικητική Υποδιαίρεση Νομός Λαρίσης
Δήμος-Κοινότητα
Συνολική Έκταση (ha) 19580.19
Χερσαία Έκταση (ha) 19580.19
Συνολική Περίμετρος (km) 69.5
Μέγιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 1965.0
Ελάχιστο Υψόμετρο (m)
Ένταξη στο Υπάρχον Θεσμικό Πλαίσιο

Χαρακτηριστικά

Τύπος Τοπίου
Κλίμα
Γεωλογία
Περιγραφή Τόπου

The site contains the forest complex of the north-eastern side of Ossa mountain; it starts from the sea level and goes up to the highest summit, Profitis Ilias (1980 m). The summit is bare rock and the existing vegetation belongs to the Astragalo-Daphnion. At the lower altitudes the main vegetation type is the broad-leaved evergreen woodland. Here the majority of the relevant species that grow in Greece like Acer sp., Quercus sp., Corrylus sp., Arbutus sp., Erica sp., Fraxinus sp., Phillyrea sp., Ulmus sp., Cornus sp. etc are found. At higher altitudes the human impact is distinctive since the control and grafting of Castanea sativa have lead to pure groups of the species, especially in the parts of the forest that belong to the local communities. The trees are used mainly for chestnut collection and less for their wood. Where the human impact is lighter Castanea grows together with Tilia in a typical Tilio-Castanetum at 300 - 500m (described by habitat type 9180 and characterized by Tilia tomentosa).The next vegetation level, reaching up to the 650m, is Quercetum-montanum with Quercus species, mainly Q. conferta, Q. sessiliflora and Q. pubescens. Quercus forests are also found at altitudes of 200 - 300 in the wet regions of Ossa. At higher altitudes (650 - 1600m) we find psychrophilous, hydrophilous vegetation. The dominant forest species is the beech; Fagus moesiaca together with F. sylvatica and F. orientalis at the higher and lower altitudes respectively. In Ossa, as well as in the rest of East Thessaly, the limit of Fagion moesiacae is not the line of summer cloud formations (as it is in Albania, for example); small formations of Fagus sp. are found in ravines even at altitudes as low as 280 m. The pure beech forest becomes mixed in the zone of 1000 - 1450 m where Fagus trees are found together with fir-trees (Abies borisii-regis). There is also Abies cephallonica forest (the endemic greek fir) covering a small part of the site (Corine code 42.18, a habitat type not included in Annex I). The Abies forest was in recess during the last years because of its exploitation, but recently it has started to reestablish itself. Above the end of the forest line is the subalpine zone with a great variety of species. On Ossa there are also found Carpinus orientalis, ravine forests of Aesculus orientalis and formations of Pteridium aquilinun and Berberis cretica. At low percentages there are also some broad-leaved species such as Acer, Sorbus, Fraxinus and riverside vegetation along the streams. NOTE ON BIOGEOGRAPHIC REGION: Ossa mountain, characterized Quercion cerris and Fagetalia, could be considered part of the sub-continental and continental biogeographic region. NOTE ON FAGUS 1. Strid A. 1986. Mountain Flora of Greece, 1:51. In Greece there is Fagus sylvatica ssp. sylvatica (above 1000 m in Greek mainland southwards to Oxia and Pilion). F. sylvatica ssp. orientalis is a closely related subspecies and intermediate forms (often called F. moesiaca) occur where the two subspecies meet (e.g., Balkan peninsula). Typical F. sylvatica ssp. sylvatica is found in western and central districts above 1000 m, while intermediate forms resembling F. sylvatica ssp. orientalis occur below 1000 m. 2. Med-Checklist 3:225. Three subspecies of Fagus sylvatica are recognized, ssp. sylvatica, ssp. moesiaca and ssp. orientalis, all occuring in Greece (Gr). 3. Flora Europaea, 1:72. Two subsepcies of Fagus sylvatica are recognized, ssp. sylvatica and ssp. orientalis, both occuring in Greece. Fagus moesiaca is considered an intermediate form between the two subspecies.

Κατάσταση Τόπου
Εγκατάλειψη οικισμών
Τάση Κατάστασης Τόπου
Ιστορία και εξέλιξη του τόπου
Σημεία με καλή Θέα
Μονοπάτια Περίπατοι

Αξίες

Οικολογική Αξία
Κοινωνικοοικονομική/πολιτιστική Αξία
Αισθητική Αξία
Σχόλιο για τις αξίες

The aesthetic forest of Ossa is a real botanical garden. The favorable environmental and climatic conditions of the area and namely the high percentage of rainfall, a result of the eastern winds, have lead to the remarkable forest complex of Ossa. The landscape and the geomorphology of the site are interesting since they create locally numerous special habitats that lead to high biodiversity in the vegetation types, in the flora and in the fauna. The complex presents an exceptional variety of habitats and plant species. It has an alternating landscape with extensive closed forests of beech and fir on the eastern side and small fields on the plateau, while the summit is bare rock. The Ossa complex is mainly composed of pure and mixed woodland of broad-leaved trees as well as broad-leaved and coniferous trees. The site has several endemic species of plants, such as Silene multicaulis ssp. genistifollia, Teucrium chamaedrys ssp. olympicum (rare) and balkan endemics such as Lamium garganicum ssp.striatum. The soil is very good for forestry. Its productivity is considered poor and unsuitable for agricultural or cattle-raising exploitation.Besides its botanical interest based on the presence of endemic and/or rare species and the variety of vascular and lower plants, the site is protected as a Special Protected Area (SPA) and characterized as an Important Bird Area (IBA) and harbours a great number of birds. For some of them, Ossa is one of the 5 most important sites in the region or one of only 100 or less sites in the EC. The forest complex of Ossa is also characterized by the presence of large mammals like Canis lupus, Canis aureus, Sus scrofa and others that are all protected by international conventions and national laws. There are also important amphibians and reptiles. Finally, the fauna is rich in invertabrate species, some of them included in Annex II of 92/43/EEC, and there are some endemic species of invertebrates: Maladera krueperi, Leptusa casalei, Albaniola thessalica, Tapinopterus thessalicus, Duvalius roseni, Duvalius zaimisi, Ampedus vignai, Langelandia thessalica are endemic Coleoptera and Poecilimon thessalicus, Dolichopoda annae are endemic species of Orthoptera.OTHER IMPORTANT SPECIES WITH MOTIVATION DInvertebrates: Platycnemis pennipes: According to Van Tol, J. & Verdonk M.J. (1988) is an endangered species. Spialia phlomidis: According to J.S.Dadrowski, is considered a rare species. Agrodiaetus admetus: Is protected by the Presidential Decree 67/1981. Heodes alciphron: According to J.S.Dadrowski, is considered a rare species. Parnassius mnemosyne: Protected by the Presidential Decree 67/1981. Included in the annexes IV of the Directive 92/43/EC, and II of the Bern convention, mentioned in CORINE-Biotopes project 1988. Finally it is mentioned by Koomen P. & van Helsdingen P.J. (1993) as an endangered species. Aesalus scarabaeoides: Mentioned by the Speight M.C.D. (1989) and Koomen P. & van Helsdingen P.J. (1993) as an endangered species. Rhysodes sulcatus: It is considered an endangered and interesting species by Speight M.C.D. (1989), Koomen P., van Helsdingen P.J. (1993) and the European Invertabrate Survey (1991).Vertebrates: Felis sylvestris: Included in the annex IV of the Directive 92/43/EC, the annex II of the Bern Convention, mentioned in the CITES 1973 and in the CORINE-Biotopes project 1988 - Technical handbook vol.1. Glis glis, Sciurus vulgaris: Protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and included in the annex III of the Bern Convention. Muscardinus avellanarius: Protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81), included in the annexes IV of the Directive 92/43/EC and III of the Bern Convention. Capreolus capreolus: Cited in the Red Data Book of the threatened vertebrates of Greece as a vulnerable species. Also included in the annexes III of the Bern Convention, and V of the Directive 92/43/EC. Canis aureus: Cited in the Red Data Book of the threatened vertabrates of Greece as a vulnerable species. Also included in the annex V of the Directive 92/43/EC. Canis lupus: Cited in the Red Data Book of the threatened vertabrates of Greece as a vulnerable species and the IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals (1988). Also included in the annexes II, IV and V of the Directive 92/43/EC and the annex II of the Bern Convention. Mentioned in the CITES 1973 and in the CORINE-Biotopes project 1988. Plants: Aesculus hippocastanum is a mediterranean endemic species native only in the Balkan peninsula in Europe (Greece, former Jugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria). There are only few local trees in the area and planting young ones is needed in order for the species to survive. Androsace villosa is a species scattered on the mountains of C and S Europe between 1800 - 2200 m on stabilized screes and limestone rocks. Ornithogalum oligophyllum is a species with distribution in the Balkan peninsula and Anatolia. The endemic species, Centaurea ossaea, Allium heldreichii and the balkan endemics Gallium degenii and Astragalus lacteus are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and are also included in the IUCN Red Data List (1993) in the category of threatened species and in the European Red List of Globally Threatened Species characterised as rare. The endemic species Viola athois and Erodium chrysanthum are protected by the Bern Convention and by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and are also included in the IUCN Red Data List (1993) in the category of threatened species and in the European Red List of Globally Threatened Species characterised as vulnerable. Festuca koritnicensis is a rare (IUCN 1993) balkan endemic. Viola tricolor ssp. macedonica is a balkan endemic (Greece, Albania).Astragalus mayeri, Crocus veluchensis, Crataegus heldreichii, Silene radicosa ssp. radicosa, Crocus cvijicii, Sideritis scardica, Lamium garganicum ssp. striatum, Scrophularia aestivalis, Dianthus haematocalyx ssp. haematocalyx, Dianthus integer ssp. minutiflorus, Carum graecum ssp. graecum, Dianthus viscidus, Colchicum doerfleri, Carum strictum are balkan endemics. Marrubium thessalum is endemic to N. & C. Greece and S. Albania while Carlina frigida is a balkan endemic occurring in Greece and probably extending to S. former Jugoslavia and Albania.


Κίνδυνοι

Απειλές/διαταραχές
Σχόλιο για τις απειλές-διαταραχές
Τρωτότητα

Because of the long-term management and protection of the site the usual threats of forested areas such as fires and grazing, have been reduced to the minimum. 100 - Cultivation: Applies to fruit-bearing tree cultivations and chestnut tree groups where the chestnuts are collected and the dead branches are cut. 140 - Grazing: The danger from grazing is extremely limited because of the small number of the grazing animals and the wise management. However, remembering the reduced grazing areas of the villages Karitsa and Stomio it is always a potential danger. 160 - General Forestry Management: Applies to the total of the forest. Outdoor and leisure activities together with free camping are observed in the area. 180 - Burning: From 1922 until 1994, only 7 fires had occurred in the area, with the last two, in 1977, being the most destructive ones. On the whole, the danger of fire is located in the zone of broad-leaved evergreen woodland. Two observatories have been constructed in the localities “Seloma” and “Stavros” and, together with the good road network and the people working around the forest during summer, are considered adequate for the quick confronting of possible future fires. 190 : The illegal expansion of cultivations of fruit bearing trees and especially of chestnut trees and the grafting of wild nearby trees is slow and reduced due to the forestry protection yet still existing. This expansion results in demands for the modification of property rights. 230 - Hunting: It is controlled. 251 - Taking/ pillaging of floristic stations: Collection of Tilia flowers. Around the villages only. 690 : Illegal occupation of land is increasingly appearing in the areas of the complex near the sea due to tourist interest. 976 - Damage of Flora by Game Species: Capreolus capreolus has been protected and its populations were enriched in the Hunting Area and are now a threat for the young fir trees.

Προτεραιότητα προστασίας

Πανίδα και Χλωρίδα

Χαρακτηριστικά Ενδιαιτήματα
Αξιόλογα Φυτά
Aesculus hippocastanum (Πικροκαστανιά)
Allium heldreichii
Androsace villosa
Astragalus lacteus
Astragalus mayeri
Campanula thessala
Centaurea ossaea
Colchicum doerfleri
Crocus cvijicii
Crocus veluchensis
Dianthus integer minutiflorus
Erodium chrysanthum
Marrubium thessalum
Sideritis scardica
Silene multicaulis genistifolia
Silene radicosa
Viola athois
Viola rausii
Αξιόλογα Θηλαστικά
Canis aureus moreoticus (Τσακάλι)
Canis lupus (Λύκος)
Capreolus capreolus (Ζαρκάδι)
Felis silvestris morea (Αγριόγατος του Μωριά)
Glis glis argenteus (Δασομυωξός)
Martes foina (Κουνάβι)
Meles meles (Ασβός)
Muscardinus avellanarius zeus (Βουνομυωξός)
Sciurus vulgaris ameliae (Σκίουρος Αμέλιος)
Sus scrofa (Αγριογούρουνο)
Αξιόλογα Πτηνά
Accipiter brevipes (Σαΐνι)
Aegypius monachus (Μαυρόγυπας)
Anthus campestris campestris (Χαμοκελάδα)
Aquila chrysaetos chrysaetos (Χρυσαητός)
Aquila pomarina (Κραυγαητός)
Bubo bubo bubo (Μπούφος)
Calandrella brachydactyla (Μικρογαλιάντρα)
Caprimulgus europaeus (Γυδοβυζάχτρα)
Circaetus gallicus (Φιδαητός)
Circus macrourus (Στεπόκιρκος)
Circus pygargus (Λιβαδόκιρκος)
Dendrocopos medius medius (Μεσοτσικλητάρα)
Dendrocopos syriacus (Βαλκανοτσικλητάρα)
Falco biarmicus feldeggi (Χρυσογέρακο)
Falco peregrinus brookei (Πετρίτης)
Gyps fulvus (Όρνιο)
Hieraaetus pennatus (Σταυραητός)
Lullula arborea arborea (Δεντροσταρήθρα)
Neophron percnopterus (Ασπροπάρης)
Αξιόλογα Αμφίβια / Ερπετά
Ablepharus kitaibelii fabichi (Αβλέφαρος)
Bombina variegata scabra (Κιτρινοβομβίνα)
Bufo viridis viridis (Πρασινόφρυνος)
Coluber gemonensis gemonensis
Cyrtodactylus kotschyi adelphiensis (Κυρτοδάκτυλος των νησιών Αδέλφια)
Elaphe situla (Σπιτόφιδο)
Lacerta viridis meridionalis (Πρασινόσαυρα η …)
Natrix tessellata tessellata (Κυβόφιδο)
Podarcis muralis albanica (Αλβανική γουστέρα)
Salamandra salamandra salamandra (Σαλαμάνδρα)
Testudo hermanni hermanni (Ονυχοχελώνα)
Testudo marginata (Κρασπεδωτή χελώνα)
Vipera ammodytes meridionalis (Οχιά)
Αξιόλογα Ψάρια
Αξιόλογα Ασπόνδυλα
Parnassius mnemosyne athene (Παρνάσσιος των Αθηνών)
Σχόλια για τα είδη