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The aesthetic forest of Ossa is a real botanical garden. The favorable environmental and climatic conditions of the area and namely the high percentage of rainfall, a result of the eastern winds, have lead to the remarkable forest complex of Ossa. The landscape and the geomorphology of the site are interesting since they create locally numerous special habitats that lead to high biodiversity in the vegetation types, in the flora and in the fauna. The complex presents an exceptional variety of habitats and plant species. It has an alternating landscape with extensive closed forests of beech and fir on the eastern side and small fields on the plateau, while the summit is bare rock. The Ossa complex is mainly composed of pure and mixed woodland of broad-leaved trees as well as broad-leaved and coniferous trees. The site has several endemic species of plants, such as Silene multicaulis ssp. genistifollia, Teucrium chamaedrys ssp. olympicum (rare) and balkan endemics such as Lamium garganicum ssp.striatum. The soil is very good for forestry. Its productivity is considered poor and unsuitable for agricultural or cattle-raising exploitation.Besides its botanical interest based on the presence of endemic and/or rare species and the variety of vascular and lower plants, the site is protected as a Special Protected Area (SPA) and characterized as an Important Bird Area (IBA) and harbours a great number of birds. For some of them, Ossa is one of the 5 most important sites in the region or one of only 100 or less sites in the EC. The forest complex of Ossa is also characterized by the presence of large mammals like Canis lupus, Canis aureus, Sus scrofa and others that are all protected by international conventions and national laws. There are also important amphibians and reptiles. Finally, the fauna is rich in invertabrate species, some of them included in Annex II of 92/43/EEC, and there are some endemic species of invertebrates: Maladera krueperi, Leptusa casalei, Albaniola thessalica, Tapinopterus thessalicus, Duvalius roseni, Duvalius zaimisi, Ampedus vignai, Langelandia thessalica are endemic Coleoptera and Poecilimon thessalicus, Dolichopoda annae are endemic species of Orthoptera.OTHER IMPORTANT SPECIES WITH MOTIVATION DInvertebrates: Platycnemis pennipes: According to Van Tol, J. & Verdonk M.J. (1988) is an endangered species. Spialia phlomidis: According to J.S.Dadrowski, is considered a rare species. Agrodiaetus admetus: Is protected by the Presidential Decree 67/1981. Heodes alciphron: According to J.S.Dadrowski, is considered a rare species. Parnassius mnemosyne: Protected by the Presidential Decree 67/1981. Included in the annexes IV of the Directive 92/43/EC, and II of the Bern convention, mentioned in CORINE-Biotopes project 1988. Finally it is mentioned by Koomen P. & van Helsdingen P.J. (1993) as an endangered species. Aesalus scarabaeoides: Mentioned by the Speight M.C.D. (1989) and Koomen P. & van Helsdingen P.J. (1993) as an endangered species. Rhysodes sulcatus: It is considered an endangered and interesting species by Speight M.C.D. (1989), Koomen P., van Helsdingen P.J. (1993) and the European Invertabrate Survey (1991).Vertebrates: Felis sylvestris: Included in the annex IV of the Directive 92/43/EC, the annex II of the Bern Convention, mentioned in the CITES 1973 and in the CORINE-Biotopes project 1988 - Technical handbook vol.1. Glis glis, Sciurus vulgaris: Protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and included in the annex III of the Bern Convention. Muscardinus avellanarius: Protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81), included in the annexes IV of the Directive 92/43/EC and III of the Bern Convention. Capreolus capreolus: Cited in the Red Data Book of the threatened vertebrates of Greece as a vulnerable species. Also included in the annexes III of the Bern Convention, and V of the Directive 92/43/EC. Canis aureus: Cited in the Red Data Book of the threatened vertabrates of Greece as a vulnerable species. Also included in the annex V of the Directive 92/43/EC. Canis lupus: Cited in the Red Data Book of the threatened vertabrates of Greece as a vulnerable species and the IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals (1988). Also included in the annexes II, IV and V of the Directive 92/43/EC and the annex II of the Bern Convention. Mentioned in the CITES 1973 and in the CORINE-Biotopes project 1988. Plants: Aesculus hippocastanum is a mediterranean endemic species native only in the Balkan peninsula in Europe (Greece, former Jugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria). There are only few local trees in the area and planting young ones is needed in order for the species to survive. Androsace villosa is a species scattered on the mountains of C and S Europe between 1800 - 2200 m on stabilized screes and limestone rocks. Ornithogalum oligophyllum is a species with distribution in the Balkan peninsula and Anatolia. The endemic species, Centaurea ossaea, Allium heldreichii and the balkan endemics Gallium degenii and Astragalus lacteus are protected by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and are also included in the IUCN Red Data List (1993) in the category of threatened species and in the European Red List of Globally Threatened Species characterised as rare. The endemic species Viola athois and Erodium chrysanthum are protected by the Bern Convention and by the Greek Law (Presidential Decree 67/81) and are also included in the IUCN Red Data List (1993) in the category of threatened species and in the European Red List of Globally Threatened Species characterised as vulnerable. Festuca koritnicensis is a rare (IUCN 1993) balkan endemic. Viola tricolor ssp. macedonica is a balkan endemic (Greece, Albania).Astragalus mayeri, Crocus veluchensis, Crataegus heldreichii, Silene radicosa ssp. radicosa, Crocus cvijicii, Sideritis scardica, Lamium garganicum ssp. striatum, Scrophularia aestivalis, Dianthus haematocalyx ssp. haematocalyx, Dianthus integer ssp. minutiflorus, Carum graecum ssp. graecum, Dianthus viscidus, Colchicum doerfleri, Carum strictum are balkan endemics. Marrubium thessalum is endemic to N. & C. Greece and S. Albania while Carlina frigida is a balkan endemic occurring in Greece and probably extending to S. former Jugoslavia and Albania.