NatureBank - Βιότοπος NATURA - OROS ITAMOS - SITHONIA

Στοιχεία Τόπου

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Γενικά Στοιχεία

Όνομα OROS ITAMOS - SITHONIA
Κατηγορία Τόπου Βιότοπος NATURA
Κωδικός Τόπου GR1270002
Κύριος Χαρακτήρας
Βιότοπος
Φυσικό Τοπίο
Δομημένο Τοπίο
Διοικητική Υποδιαίρεση Νομός Χαλκιδικής
Δήμος-Κοινότητα
Συνολική Έκταση (ha) 18031.62
Χερσαία Έκταση (ha) 17099.03
Συνολική Περίμετρος (km) 90.5
Μέγιστο Υψόμετρο (m) 807.0
Ελάχιστο Υψόμετρο (m)
Ένταξη στο Υπάρχον Θεσμικό Πλαίσιο

Χαρακτηριστικά

Τύπος Τοπίου
Κλίμα
Γεωλογία
Περιγραφή Τόπου The site is located on the north-east part of the Sithonia peninsula. The littoral zone is covered with calcareous and schistolithic plates. Beaches are not exposed to winds and particular flora develops. The sea bed declines smoothly and the Posidonia beds reach 15 m and cover a quite large area. On the rocky sea bed zones of Cystoseira (C. crinita, C. discors) grow and the sciophilus species dominate. In 1-2 m depth, populations of Cymodocea nodosa are found, where the substrate is sandy and muddy. Four important pines characterize the forest of Sithonia Peninsula. Pinus halepensis and Pinus nigra var. palassiana are the most common. There are also two less significant pines (Pinus pinea and Pinus maritima). The hardwoods are very scarce. Forest of Platanus orientalis, Alnus glutinosa, Salix sp. and Populus sp. is located primarily along the river systems. Smaller isolated units are found along swamps and streams throughout the mountainous area. At somewhat high elevations, in black pine belt, a few trees of Taxus baccata appear. The older of them has a diameter of 1,2 m and it is estimated to be 2000 years old.
Κατάσταση Τόπου
Εγκατάλειψη οικισμών
Τάση Κατάστασης Τόπου
Ιστορία και εξέλιξη του τόπου
Σημεία με καλή Θέα
Μονοπάτια Περίπατοι

Αξίες

Οικολογική Αξία
Κοινωνικοοικονομική/πολιτιστική Αξία
Αισθητική Αξία
Σχόλιο για τις αξίες The site combines sea and mountain. The mountain is covered by coniferous forests, and it possesses impressive landscape features including steep slopes, rock formations, streams and unique species of flora and fauna. This is an important area for breeding birds of prey. The bay of Vourvourou is an area of great habitat variety. Cystoseira communities form zones in the sublittoral zone (typical vegetation-zonation of Mediterranean). Skiophilous species of Rhodophyceae dominate the area. Posidonia beds do not reveal particular degradation and present a high density population forming an important congregation with rich flora and fauna. The gum that flows from wounded pines is used in naval stores production to make resin and turpentine. Formerly the raw gum was burned to make the pitch and tar used in shipbuilding (and thus it is called naval stored). Today the principal products are turpentine, which comes from distillation of the crud gum and resin which is the residue. The area is very popular. The rock formations on the south and west part of peninsula are perceptible component of the forest scene by creating favourable habitats for birds and small animals at roadside parks, rest areas, and picnic sites and for larger species in glades, marshes or forest openings visible for the road.Concerning the wild growning plants the quality of the site is indicated by the occurrence of other important taxa. Among them, 5 taxa are greek endemics, one taxon is protected by the EC Environment Legislation (1992), one taxon (Celtis tournefortii) is protected by the Greek Presidental Decree (67/1981), one taxon (Genista tinctoria) is Balkan endemic one taxon (Stachys cretica ssp. cassia) finds its main distribution area in the Balkan Peninsula extending also to Turkey and one taxon (Pancratium maritimum) is seriously endangered by the human activities on the coast.

Κίνδυνοι

Απειλές/διαταραχές
Σχόλιο για τις απειλές-διαταραχές
Τρωτότητα In Sithonia peninsula, there are several human activities (agriculture, forestry, stock-raising and hunting). Tourism has been developing considerably during the last ten years. Building construction and leisure fishing are very well developed as well as ship circulation, mainly during the summer season. Human activities in the area are likely in future to have adverse effects on the growth limits of the Posidonia beds. Southern grazed lands generally are arid, open and acid areas with maximum populations pressure from human. These lands are less adaptive to cultivation. The history of grazing in this part has been characterized by too many animals for too long a period of insufficient land. Erosion and the dominance of Quercus coccifera that is characteristic of overgrazed lands resulted in serious depletion of the range. Maquis is a community that extends its dominance over a wide area on the northern part of peninsula and presents a diversity of habitats. It includes at least a dozen of evergreen sclerophylous shrubs with varying degrees of dominance and importance, which may occur in many combinations but which invariably form low, dense thickets. The most important and constant species are Erica manipuliflora and Quercus coccifera. The numerous species of rest Ericacae are less characteristic. The long dry summers and the nature of sclerophyllous vegetation make frequent fires the rule. The studies of these areas showed that stand of maquis without fire for a hundred years is considered old. An ordinary fire causes maquis to sprout profusely and then come back to normal within ten years. Fire usually favours the spread of maquis at expense of deciduous forests. Too frequent fires (especially with heavy grazing after these), however may cause their replacement by phrygana.
Προτεραιότητα προστασίας

Πανίδα και Χλωρίδα

Χαρακτηριστικά Ενδιαιτήματα
Αξιόλογα Φυτά
Campanula lavrensis
Celtis tournefortii (Αγριομελικουκιά)
Genista tinctoria (Γενίστα η βαφική)
Malcolmia macrocalyx macrocalyx
Neotinea maculata
Pancratium maritimum
Posidonia oceanica (Ποσειδονία)
Αξιόλογα Θηλαστικά
Canis aureus moreoticus (Τσακάλι)
Canis lupus (Λύκος)
Capreolus capreolus (Ζαρκάδι)
Cervus elaphus (Ελάφι)
Felis silvestris morea (Αγριόγατος του Μωριά)
Martes foina (Κουνάβι)
Meles meles (Ασβός)
Monachus monachus (Μεσογειακή φώκια)
Mustela nivalis galinthias (Νυφίτσα)
Sus scrofa (Αγριογούρουνο)
Αξιόλογα Πτηνά
Αξιόλογα Αμφίβια / Ερπετά
Anguis fragilis colchicus (Κονάκι)
Bombina variegata scabra (Κιτρινοβομβίνα)
Bufo viridis viridis (Πρασινόφρυνος)
Elaphe quatuorlineata quatuorlineata (Λαφίτης)
Emys orbicularis (Βαλτοχελώνα)
Eryx jaculus turcicus (Έρυξ (Λουρίτης))
Lacerta viridis meridionalis (Πρασινόσαυρα η …)
Malpolon monspessulanus insignitus (Σαπίτης)
Mauremys caspica rivulata (Ποταμοχελώνα)
Natrix natrix persa (Ντρόφιδο το Περσικό)
Natrix tessellata tessellata (Κυβόφιδο)
Ophisaurus apodus thracius (Τυφλίτης)
Rana dalmatina (Ευκίνητος Βάτραχος)
Telescopus fallax fallax (Αγιόφιδο)
Testudo graeca ibera (Γραικοχελώνα)
Testudo hermanni hermanni (Ονυχοχελώνα)
Typhlops vermicularis (Τυφλίνος)
Αξιόλογα Ψάρια
Αξιόλογα Ασπόνδυλα
Σχόλια για τα είδη